Climate Dynamics

, Volume 48, Issue 7–8, pp 2087–2105

Southern Hemisphere rainfall variability over the past 200 years

Article

Abstract

This study presents an analysis of three palaeoclimate rainfall reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere regions of south-eastern Australia (SEA), southern South Africa (SAF) and southern South America (SSA). We provide a first comparison of rainfall variations in these three regions over the past two centuries, with a focus on identifying synchronous wet and dry periods. Despite the uncertainties associated with the spatial and temporal limitations of the rainfall reconstructions, we find evidence of dynamically-forced climate influences. An investigation of the twentieth century relationship between regional rainfall and the large-scale climate circulation features of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean regions revealed that Indo-Pacific variations of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole dominate rainfall variability in SEA and SAF, while the higher latitude Southern Annular Mode (SAM) exerts a greater influence in SSA. An assessment of the stability of the regional rainfall–climate circulation modes over the past two centuries revealed a number of non-stationarities, the most notable of which occurs during the early nineteenth century around 1820. This corresponds to a time when the influence of ENSO on SEA, SAF and SSA rainfall weakens and there is a strengthening of the influence of SAM. We conclude by advocating the use of long-term palaeoclimate data to estimate decadal rainfall variability for future water resource management.

Keywords

Southeastern Australia South Africa South America Rainfall Drought Decadal climate variability El Niño–Southern Oscillation Indian Ocean dipole Southern Annular Mode Southern Hemisphere 

Supplementary material

382_2016_3191_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (28.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 29113 kb)

References

  1. Abram N, Gagan M, Cole J, Hantoro W, Mudelsee M (2008) Recent intensification of tropical climate variability in the Indian Ocean. Nat Geosci 1:849–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abram NJ, Mulvaney R, Vimeux F, Phipps SJ, Turner J, England MH (2014) Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode during the past millennium. Nat Clim Change 4:564–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan R, Lindsay J, Parker D (1996) El Nino Southern Oscillation and climate variability. CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashcroft L, Karoly DJ, Gergis J (2014) Southeastern Australian climate variability 1860–2009: a multivariate analysis. Int J Climatol 34(6):1928–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashcroft L, Gergis J, Karoly DJ (2015) Long-term stationarity of El Niño—Southern Oscillation teleconnections in southeastern Australia. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2746-3 Google Scholar
  6. Ault TR, Cole JE, Overpeck JT, Pederson GT, Meko DM (2014) Assessing the risk of persistent drought using climate model simulations and paleoclimate data. J Clim 27:7529–7549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Batehup R, McGregor S, Gallant AJE (2015) The influence of non-stationary teleconnections on palaeoclimate reconstructions of ENSO variance using a pseudoproxy framework. Clim Past 11(12):1733–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biondi F, Gershunov A, Cayan D (2001) North Pacific decadal climate variability since 1661. J Clim 14:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braganza K, Gergis J, Power S, Risbey J, Fowler A (2009) A multiproxy index of the El Nino–Southern Oscillation, A.D. 1525–1982. J Geophys Res 114(D5):D05106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buckley B, Anchukaitis K, Penny D, Fletcher R, Cook E, Sano M, Nam L, Wichienkeeo A, Minh T, Hong T (2010) Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(15):6748–6752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Büntgen U, Tegel W, Nicolussi K, McCormick M, Frank D, Trouet V, Kaplan JO, Herzig F, Heussner K-U, Wanner H, Luterbacher J, Esper J (2011) 2500 years of European climate variability and human susceptibility. Science 331(6017):578–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carvalho LMV, Jones C, Ambrizzi T (2005) Opposite phases of the Antarctic Oscillation and relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity in the tropics during the austral summer. J Clim 18(5):702–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christie D, Boninsegna J, Cleaveland M, Lara A, Le Quesne C, Morales M, Mudelsee M, Stahle D, Villalba R (2009) Aridity changes in the temperate–Mediterranean transition of the Andes since 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings. Clim Dyn 36(7–8):1505–1521Google Scholar
  14. Compagnucci RH, Agosta EA, Vargas WM (2002) Climatic change and quasi-oscillations in central-west Argentina summer precipitation: main features and coherent behaviour with southern African region. Clim Dyn 18(5):421–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook E, Meko D, Stahle D, Cleaveland M (1999) Drought reconstructions for the continental United States. J Clim 12(4):1145–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook E, Woodhouse C, Eakin M, Meko D, Stahle D (2004) Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science 306:1015–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook ER, Anchukaitis KJ, Buckley BM, D’Arrigo RD, Jacoby GC, Wright WE (2010) Asian Monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium. Science 328(5977):486–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook BI, Ault TR, Smerdon JE (2015) Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains. Sci Adv 1(1):e1400082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dai A (2010) Drought under global warming: a review. Wiley Interdiscip Rev: Clim Change 2(1):45–65Google Scholar
  20. D’Arrigo R, Wilson R (2006) On the Asian expression of the PDO. Int J Climatol 26(12):1607–1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. D’Arrigo R, Villalba R, Wiles G (2001) Tree ring estimates of pacific decadal climate variability. Clim Dyn 18:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawdy DR, Matalas NC (1964) Statistical and probability analysis of hydrologic data, part III: analysis of variance, covariance and time series. In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook of applied hydrology, a compendium of water-resources technology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp 8.68–8.90Google Scholar
  23. Delworth TL, Zeng F (2014) Regional rainfall decline in Australia attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and ozone levels. Nat Geosci 7(8):583–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ding Q, Steig E, Battisti D, Küttel M (2011) Winter warming in West Antarctica caused by central tropical Pacific warming. Nat Geosci 4:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ding Q, Steig EJ, Battisti DS, Wallace JM (2012) Influence of the tropics on the Southern Annular Mode. J Clim 25(18):6330–6348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Emile-Geay J, Cobb KM, Mann ME, Wittenberg AT (2013) Estimating central equatorial Pacific SST variability over the past millennium. Part 2: reconstructions and implications. J Clim 26:2329–2352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fenby C, Gergis J (2012) Rainfall variations in south-eastern Australia part 1: consolidating evidence from pre-instrumental documentary sources, 1788–1860. Int J Climatol 33(14):2956–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fogt RL, Bromwich DH (2006) Decadal variability of the ENSO teleconnection to the high-latitude south pacific governed by coupling with the Southern Annular Mode. J Clim 19(6):979–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fogt R, Bromwich D, Hines K (2011) Understanding the SAM influence on the South Pacific ENSO teleconnection. Clim Dyn 36(7–8):1555–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Folland C, Salinger J, Jiang N, Rayner N (2003) Trends and variations in South Pacific island and ocean surface temperatures. J Clim 16:2859–2874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallant AJE, Gergis J (2011) An experimental streamflow reconstruction for the River Murray, Australia, 1783–1988. Water Resour Res 47:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gallant AJE, Phipps SJ, Karoly DJ, Mullan AB, Lorrey AM (2013) Non-stationary Australasian teleconnections and implications for paleoclimate reconstructions. J Clim 26:8827–8849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gao C, Robock A, Ammann C (2008) Volcanic forcing of climate over the past 1500 years: an improved ice core-based index for climate models. J Geophys Res 113(D23):D23111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garreaud R, Battisti D (1999) Interannual (ENSO) and interdecadal (ENSO-like) variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation. J Clim 12:2113–2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garreaud RD, Vuille M, Compagnucci R, Marengo J (2009) Present-day South American climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 281(3–4):180–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gedalof Z, Smith DJ (2001) Interdecadal climate variability and regime-scale shifts in Pacific North America. Geophys Res Lett 28(8):1515–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gergis J, Ashcroft L (2013) Rainfall variations in south-eastern Australia part 2: a comparison of documentary, early instrumental and palaeoclimate records, 1788–2008. Int J Climatol 33(14):2973–2987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gergis J, Fowler A (2005) Classification of synchronous oceanic and atmospheric El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Int J Climatol 25:1541–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gergis J, Gallant AJE, Braganza K, Karoly DJ, Allen K, Cullen L, D’Arrigo R, Goodwin I, Grierson P, McGregor S (2012) On the long-term context of the 1997–2009 ‘Big Dry’ in south-eastern Australia: insights from a 206-year multi-proxy rainfall reconstruction. Clim Change 111(3):923–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grab SW, Nash DJ (2010) Documentary evidence of climate variability during cold seasons in Lesotho, southern Africa, 1833–1900. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0598-4 Google Scholar
  41. Henley BJ, Thyer MA, Kuczera G, Franks SW (2011) Climate-informed stochastic hydrological modeling: incorporating decadal-scale variability using paleo data. Water Resour Res 47(11):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henley BJ, Thyer MA, Kuczera G (2013) Climate driver informed short-term drought risk evaluation. Water Resour Res 49(5):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henley B, Gergis J, Karoly D, Power S, Kennedy J, Folland C (2015) A Tripole Index for the interdecadal Pacific oscillation. Clim Dyn 45:3077–3090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hennessy K, Fitzharris B, Bates BC, Harvey N, Howden SM, Hughes L, Salinger J, Warrick R (2007) Australia and New Zealand. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 507–540Google Scholar
  45. Jacques-Coper M, Brönnimann S (2014) Summer temperature in the eastern part of southern South America: its variability in the twentieth century and a teleconnection with Oceania. Clim Dyn 43(7):2111–2130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jones DA, Wang W, Fawcett R (2009) High-quality spatial climate data-sets for Australia. Aust Meteorol Oceanogr J 58:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joseph R, Zeng N (2009) Seasonally modulated tropical drought induced by volcanic aerosol. J Clim 24(8):2045–2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kallis G (2008) Droughts. Annu Rev Environ Resour 33(1):85–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Karoly DJ (1990) The role of transient eddies in low-frequency zonal variations of the Southern Hemisphere circulation. Tellus A 42A:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Karoly D, Hope P, Jones P (1996) Decadal variations of the Southern Hemisphere circualtion. Int J Climatol 16:723–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li J, Xie SP, Cook ER, Huang G, D’Arrigo R, Liu F, Ma J, Zheng XT (2011) Interdecadal modulation of El Nino amplitude during the past millennium. Nat Clim Change 1:114–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li J, Xie S-P, Cook ER, Morales MS, Christie DA, Johnson NC, Chen F, D’Arrigo R, Fowler AM, Gou X, Fang K (2013) El Nino modulations over the past seven centuries. Nat Clim Change 3:822–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Linsley B, Zhang P, Kaplan A, Howe S, Wellington G (2008) Interdecadal-decadal climate variability from multicoral oxygen isotope records in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region since 1650 A.D. Paleoceanography 23:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luterbacher J, García-Herrera R, Allan R, Alvarez-Castro MC, Benito G, Booth J, Büntgen U, Colombaroli D, Davis B, Esper J, Felis T, Fleitmann D, Frank D, Gallego D, Garcia-Bustamante E, González-Rouco JF, Goosse H, Kiefer T, Macklin MG, Manning S, Montagna P, Newman L, Power MJ, Rath V, Ribera P, Roberts N, Silenzi S, Tinner W, Valero-Garces B, van der Schrier G, Tzedakis C, Vannière B, Wanner H, Werner JP, Willett G, Xoplaki E, Zerefos CS, Zorita E (2012) A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) The Mediterranean climate: from past to future. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 87–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. MacDonald GM, Case RA (2005) Variations in the Pacific decadal oscillation over the past millennium. Geophys Res Lett 32(8):L08703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mann M, Zhang Z, Rutherford S, Bradley R, Hughes M, Shindell D, Ammann C, Faluvegi G, Ni F (2009) Global signatures and dynamical origins of the Little Ice Age and medieval climate anomaly. Science 326:1256–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mantua N, Hare S (2002) The Pacific decadal oscillation. J Oceanogr 58(1):35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marshall G (2003) Trends in the Southern Annular mode from observations and reanalyses. J Clim 16(24):4134–4143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Masson-Delmotte V, Schulz M, Abe-Ouchi A, Beer J, Ganopolski J, González Rouco JF, Jansen E, Lambeck K, Luterbacher J, Naish T, Osborn T, Otto-Bliesner B, Quinn T, Ramesh R, Rojas M, Shao X, Timmermann A (2013) Information from paleoclimate archives. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Doschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 383–464Google Scholar
  60. McGregor S, Timmermann A, Timm O (2010) A unified proxy for ENSO and PDO variability since 1650. Clim Past 6:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meinke H, deVoil P, Hammer GL, Power S, Allan R, Stone RC, Folland C, Potgieter A (2005) Rainfall variability at decadal and longer time scales: signal or noise? J Clim 18(1):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mitchell TD, Jones PD (2005) An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int J Climatol 25(6):693–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Morales MS, Christie DA, Villalba R, Argollo J, Pacajes J, Silva JS, Alvarez CA, Llancabure JC, Soliz Gamboa CC (2012) Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings. Clim Past 8(2):653–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nash DJ, Adamson GCD (2014) Recent advances in the historical climatology of the tropics and subtropics. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95(1):131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nash DJ, Grab SW (2010) “A sky of brass and burning winds”: documentary evidence of rainfall variability in the Kingdom of Lesotho, Southern Africa, 1824–1900. Clim Change 101(3–4):617–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Neukom R, Gergis J (2012) Southern Hemisphere high-resolution palaeoclimate records of the last 2000 years. Holocene 5:501–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neukom R, Prieto MD, Moyano R, Luterbacher J, Pfister C, Villalba R, Jones PD, Wanner H (2009) An extended network of documentary data from South America and its potential for quantitative precipitation reconstructions back to the 16th century. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2010GL043680 Google Scholar
  68. Neukom R, Luterbacher J, Villalba R, Küttel M, Frank D, Jones PD, Grosjean M, Esper J, Lopez L, Wanner H (2010) Multi-centennial summer and winter precipitation variability in southern South America. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2010GL043680 Google Scholar
  69. Neukom R, Luterbacher J, Villalba R, Kuttel M, Frank D, Jones PD, Grosjean M, Wanner H, Aravena J, Black D, Christie D, D’Arrigo R, Lara A, Morales M, Soliz-Gamboa C, Srur A, Urrutia R, von Gunten L (2011) Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries. Clim Dyn 37(1–2):35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Neukom R, Gergis J, Karoly D, Wanner H, Curran M, Elbert J, González-Rouco F, Linsley B, Moy A, Mundo I, Raible C, Steig E, van Ommen T, Vance T, Villalba R, Zinke J, Frank D (2014a) Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the last millennium. Nat Clim Change 4:362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neukom R, Nash DJ, Endfield GH, Grab SW, Grove CA, Kelso C, Vogel CH, Zinke J (2014b) Multi-proxy summer and winter precipitation reconstruction for southern Africa over the last 200 years. Clim Dyn 42(9–10):2713–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pauling A, Luterbacher J, Casty C, Wanner H (2006) Five hundred years of gridded high-resolution precipitation reconstructions over Europe and the connection to large-scale circulation. Clim Dyn 26(4):387–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peel MC, Pegram GGS, McMahon TA (2004) Global analysis of runs of annual precipitation and runoff equal to or below the median: run length. Int J Climatol 24(7):807–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peel MC, McMahon TA, Pegram GGS (2005) Global analysis of runs of annual precipitation and runoff equal to or below the median: run magnitude and severity. Int J Climatol 25(5):549–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Power S, Casey T, Folland C, Colman A, Mehta V (1999) Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on Australia. Clim Dyn 15:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2002JD002670 Google Scholar
  77. Risbey JS, Pook MJ, McIntosh PC, Wheeler MC, Hendon HH (2009) On the remote drivers of rainfall variability in Australia. Mon Weather Rev 137:3233–3253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robock A (2000) Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev Geophys 38(2):191–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saji N, Goswami G, Vinayachandran P, Yamagata T (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401:360–363Google Scholar
  80. Shanahan TM, Overpeck JT, Anchukaitis KJ, Beck JW, Cole JE, Dettman DL, Peck JA, Scholz CA, King JW (2009) Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science 324(5925):377–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shen C, Wang WC, Gong W, Hao Z (2006) A Pacific decadal oscillation record since 1470 AD reconstructed from proxy data of summer rainfall over eastern China. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2005GL024804 Google Scholar
  82. Stahle DW, Diaz JV, Burnette DJ, Paredes JC, Heim RR Jr, Fye FK, Acuna Soto R, Therrell MD, Cleaveland MK, Stahle DK (2011) Major Mesoamerican droughts of the past millennium. Geophys Res Lett 38(5):L05703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stott P, Gillett N, Hegerl G, Karoly DJ, Stone D, Zhang X, Zwiers F (2010) Detection and attribution of climate change: a regional perspective. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 1(2):192–211Google Scholar
  84. Thyer M, Frost AJ, Kuczera G (2006) Parameter estimation and model identification for stochastic models of annual hydrological data: is the observed record long enough? J Hydrol 330(1–2):313–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tierney JE, Smerdon JE, Anchukaitis KJ, Seager R (2013) Multidecadal variability in East African hydroclimate controlled by the Indian Ocean. Nature 493(7432):389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Touchan R, Anchukaitis K, Meko D, Sabir M, Attalah S, Aloui A (2011) Spatiotemporal drought variability in northwestern Africa over the last nine centuries. Clim Dyn 37(1):237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Trenberth KE, Dai A (2007) Effects of Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the hydrological cycle as an analog of geoengineering. Geophys Res Lett 34(15):L15702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Trenberth K, Stepaniak D (2001) Indices of El Nino evolution. J Clim 14:1697–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Troup A (1965) The Southern Oscillation. Q J R Meteorol Soc 91:490–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tyson PD (1980) Temporal and spatial variation of rainfall anomalies in Africa south of latitude 22° during the period of meteorological record. Clim Change 2(4):363–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tyson PD (1986) Climate change and variability in Southern Africa. Oxford University Press, CapetownGoogle Scholar
  92. Tyson PD, Sturman AP, Fitzharris BB, Mason SJ, Owens IF (1997) Circulation changes and teleconnections between glacial advances on the west coast of New Zealand and extended spells of drought years in South Africa. Int J Climatol 17(14):1499–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Verdon-Kidd D, Kiem A (2009) Nature and causes of protracted droughts in southeast Australia: comparison between the Federation, WWII, and Big Dry droughts. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2009GL041067 Google Scholar
  94. Verdon-Kidd DC, Kiem AS (2014) Synchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern Hemisphere. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 10(12):14571–14590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Villalba R, Lara A, Masiokas MH, Urrutia R, Luckman BH, Marshall GJ, Mundo IA, Christie DA, Cook ER, Neukom R, Allen K, Fenwick P, Boninsegna JA, Srur AM, Morales MS, Araneo D, Palmer JG, Cuq E, Aravena JC, Holz A, LeQuesne C (2012) Unusual Southern Hemisphere tree growth patterns induced by changes in the Southern Annular Mode. Nat Geosci 5:793–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhang S, Wang B (2008) Global summer monsoon rainy seasons. Int J Climatol 28(12):1563–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System ScienceUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations