Climate Dynamics

, Volume 48, Issue 1–2, pp 281–295 | Cite as

On the relationship between east equatorial Atlantic SST and ISM through Eurasian wave

  • Ramesh Kumar Yadav


The dominant mode of July–August (JA) seasonal variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) are obtained by performing empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first dominant mode of ISMR and its relationships with the sea surface temperature (SST), pressure level wind and geopotential height (GPH) fields are examined using gridded datasets for the period 1979–2014. The principal component of the first leading mode (PC1) obtained in the EOF analysis of JA rainfall over Indian landmass is highly correlated with north-west and central India rainfall, and anti-correlated with east-equatorial Atlantic SST (EEASST). The positive EEASST anomaly intensifies the inter-tropical convergence zone over Atlantic and west equatorial Africa which generates stationary wave meridionally, as meridional transfer of energy is strong, as the influence of background jet-streams are minimal over North Africa and Europe. The anomalous positive and negative GPH are generated over sub-tropics and extra-tropics, respectively, due to the stationary wave. This increases the climatological background steep pressure gradient between sub-tropics and extra-tropics consisting of anomalous negative GPH field over north-west (NW) Europe and vice versa for negative EEASST anomaly. The anomalous positive GPH over NW Europe acts as center of action for the propagation of a Rossby wave train to NW India via Europe consisting of anomalous high over NW of India. This intensifies the Tibetan High westward which reinforces the outbreak of monsoon activities over central and NW India.


South-west monsoon Indian landmass Tibetan high Rossby wave Empirical orthogonal function Principal component Stationary wave 



The author wish to thank to the Editor and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that helped improving the manuscript. The data have been taken from Web sites and all data sources are duly acknowledged. Computational and graphical analyses required for this study have been completed with the free softwares xmgrace, NCL and Ferret.


  1. Adler RF, Huffman GL, Chang A et al (2003) The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979-present). J Hydrometeor 4(6):1147–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angell JK (1981) Comparison of variations in atmospheric quantities with sea surface temperature variations in the equatorial Pacific. Mon Weather Rev 109:230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annamalai H, Liu P (2005) Response of the Asian summer monsoon to changes in El Nin˜o properties. Q J R Meteorol Soc 131:805–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamzai AS, Shukla J (1999) Relationship between Eurasian snow cover, snow depth, and the Indian summer monsoon: an observational study. J Clim 12:3117–3132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barimalala R, Bracco A, Kucharski F (2012) The representation of the South Tropical Atlantic teleconnection to the Indian Ocean in the AR4 coupled models. Clim Dyn 38:1147–1166. doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1082-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanford HH (1884) On the connection of Himalayan snowfall and seasons of drought in India. Proc R Soc Lond 37:3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Branstator G (2002) Circumglobal teleconnections, the jet stream waveguide, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J Clim 15:1893–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen T-C (2003) Maintenance of summer monsoon circulations: a planetary perspective. J Clim 16:2022–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding Q, Wang B (2007) Intraseasonal teleconnection between the summer Eurasian wave train and the Indian Monsoon. J Clim 20:3751–3767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enfield D, Mayer D (1997) Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño-Southern oscillation. J Geophys Res 102:929–945. doi: 10.1029/96JC03296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giannini A, Saravanan R, Chang P (2003) Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302:1027–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulations. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 106:447–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goswami BN, Krishnamurthy V, Annamalai H (1999) A broad-scale circulation index for the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. Q J M R S 125:611–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goswami BN, Madhusoodanan MS, Neema CP, Sengupta D (2006a) A physical mechanism for North Atlantic SST influence on the Indian summer monsoon. Geophys Res Lett 33:L02706. doi: 10.1029/2005GL024803 Google Scholar
  16. Goswami BN, Venugopal V, Sengupta D, Madhusoodanan MS, Prince KX (2006b) Increasing trend of extreme rain events over india in a warming environment. Science 314:1442–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graham NE (1994) Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: observations and model results. Clim Dyn 10:135–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hahn D, Shukla J (1976) An apparent relationship between Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon rainfall. J Atmos Sci 33:2461–2462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Held IM, Panetta RL, Pierrehumbert RT (1985) Stationary external Rossby waves in vertical shear. J Atmos Sci 42:865–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu ZZ, Huang B (2007) Physical processes associated with the tropical Atlantic SST gradient during the anomalous evolution in the southeastern ocean. J Clim 20:3366–3378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang B, Schopf P, Shukla J (2004) Intrinsic ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J Clim 17:2058–2077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Janicot S, Harzallah A, Fontaine B, Moron V (1998) West African monsoon dynamics and eastern equatorial Atlantic and Pacific SST anomalies. J Clim 11:1874–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (1996) Assessing the impacts of El Nino and non—El Nino related droughts over India. Drought Netw News 8:11–13Google Scholar
  24. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (1999) Climatology and variability of historical Soviet snow depth data: some new perspectives in Snow-Indian monsoon teleconnections. Clim Dyn 15:475–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krishna Kumar K, Rajagopalan B, Cane MA (1999) On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science 284:2156–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krishna Kumar K, Rajagopalan B, Hoerling M, Bates G, Cane M (2006) Unraveling the mystery of Indian monsoon failure during El Niño. Science 314:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krishnamurthy L, Krishnamurthy V (2014) Influence of PDO on South Asian summer monsoon and monsoon-ENSO relation. Clim Dyn 42:2397–2410. doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1856-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krishnamurthy L, Krishnamurthy V (2015) Teleconnections of Indian monsoon rainfall with AMO and Atlantic tripole. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2701-3 Google Scholar
  29. Krishnan R, Sugi M (2003) Pacific decadal oscillation and variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Clim Dyn 21:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krishnan R, Kumar V, Sugi M, Yoshimura J (2009) Internal feedbacks from monsoon–midlatitude interactions during droughts in the Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sci 66:553–578. doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2723.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kucharski F, Bracco A, Yoo J, Molteni F (2007) Low-frequency variability of the Indian Monsoon-ENSO relationship and the Tropical Atlantic: the weakening of the 1980s and 1990s. J Clim 20:4255–4266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kucharski F, Bracco A, Yoo J, Molteni F (2008) Atlantic forced component of the Indian monsoon interannual variability. Geophys Res Lett 35:L04706. doi: 10.1029/2007GL033037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kucharski F, Bracco A, Yoo J, Tompkins A, Feudale L, Ruti P, Dell’Aquila A (2009) A simple Gill-Matsuno-type mechanism explains the tropical atlantic influence on African and Indian Monsoon rainfall. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 135:569–579. doi: 10.1002/qj.406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kucharski F, Bracco A, Barimalala R, Yoo JH (2010) Contribution of the eastwest thermal heating contrast to the South Asian Monsoon and consequences for its variability. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0858-3 Google Scholar
  35. Mak M-K (1975) The monsoonal mid-tropospheric cyclogenesis. J Atmos Sci 32:2246–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller FR, Keshavamurthy RN (1968) Structure of an Arabian Sea summer monsoon system, I.I.O.E. Meteorological Monograph1, (East-West Center Press, Honolulu), 94Google Scholar
  37. New M, Hulme M, Jones P (1999) Representing twentieth century spacetime climate variability. Part 1: development of a 1961–1990 mean terrestrial climatology. J Clim 12:829–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nobre P, Shukla J (1996) Variations of sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America. J Clim 9:2464–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pai DS, Rajeevan M (2009) Summer monsoon onset over Kerala: new definition and prediction. J Earth Syst Sci 118(2):123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parthasarathy B, Munot AA, Kothawale DR (1995) All India monthly and seasonal rainfall series: 1871–1993. Theor Appl Climatol 49:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rajeevan M, Bhate J, Kale JD, Lal B (2006) High resolution daily gridded rainfall data for the Indian region: analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Curr Sci 91:296–306Google Scholar
  42. Rajeevan M, Gadgil S, Bhate J (2008) Active and break spells of Indian summer monsoon, NCC Research Rep. 7, India Meteorological Department, PuneGoogle Scholar
  43. Raman CRV, Rao YP (1981) Blocking highs over Asia and monsoon droughts over India. Nature 289:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ramaswamy C (1962) Breaks in the Indian summer monsoon as a phenomenon of interaction between the easterly and the sub-tropical westerly jet streams. Tellus 14(3):337–349. doi: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1962.tb01346.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rasmusson EM, Carpenter TH (1983) The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon Weather Rev 111:517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodwell MJ, Hoskins BJ (2001) Subtropical anticyclones and summer monsoons. J Clim 14:3192–3211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1987) Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Nino/southern oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 115:1606–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1989) Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the southern oscillation. J Clim 2:268–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saji NH, Goswami BN, Vinayachandran PN, Yamagata T (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401:360–363Google Scholar
  50. Shanahan TM, Overpeck J, Anchukaitis K, Beck J, Cole J, Dettman DL, Scholz C, King J (2009) Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science 324:377–380. doi: 10.1126/science.1166352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shukla J (1987) Interannual variability of monsoon. In: Fein JS, Stephens PL (eds) Monsoons. Wiley, New York, pp 399–464Google Scholar
  52. Sikka DR (1980) Some aspects of the large-scale fluctuations of summer monsoon rainfall over India in relation to fluctuations in the planetary and regional scale circulation parameters. Proc Ind Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci) 89:179–195Google Scholar
  53. Takaya K, Nakamura H (2001) A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J Atmos Sci 58(6):608–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Torrence C, Webster PJ (1999) Interdecadal changes in the ENSO–monsoon system. J Clim 12:2679–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Trenberth KE, Hurrell JW (1994) Decadal atmosphereocean variations in the Pacific. Clim Dyn 9:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vizy EK, Cook K (2001) Mechanisms by which the Gulf of Guinea and eastern North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies can influence African rainfall. J Clim 14:795–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Webster PJ, Moore AM, Loschnigg JP, Leben RR (1999) Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature 401:356–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yadav RK (2009a) Changes in the large-scale features associated with the Indian summer monsoon in the recent decades. Int J Climatol 29:117–133. doi: 10.1002/joc.1698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yadav RK (2009b) Role of equatorial central Pacific and northwest of North Atlantic 2-metre surface temperatures in modulating Indian summer monsoon variability. Clim Dyn 32:549–563. doi: 10.1007/s00382-008-0410-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yadav RK (2012) Why is ENSO influencing India north-east monsoon in the recent decades? Int J Climatol 32:2163–2180. doi: 10.1002/joc.2430 Google Scholar
  61. Yadav RK (2013) Emerging role of Indian ocean on Indian northeast monsoon. Clim Dyn 41:105–116. doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1637-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yadav RK, Rupa Kumar K, Rajeevan M (2009a) Increasing influence of ENSO and decreasing influence of AO/NAO in the recent decades over northwest India winter precipitation. J Geophys Res 114:D12112. doi: 10.1029/2008JD011318 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yadav RK, Rupa Kumar K, Rajeevan M (2009b) Out-of-phase relationships between convection over north-west India and warm-pool region during winter season. Int J Climatol 29:1330–1338. doi: 10.1002/joc.1783 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yadav RK, Yoo JH, Kucharski F, Abid MA (2010) Why is ENSO influencing northwest India winter precipitation in recent decades? J Clim 23:1979–1993. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3202.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang R, Delworth TL (2006) Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscillations on India/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. Geophys Res Lett 33:L17712. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPashan, PuneIndia

Personalised recommendations