Cyclone contribution to the Mediterranean Sea water budget
- 289 Downloads
This paper analyzes the impact of cyclones to the atmospheric components on the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget, namely the cyclones contribution to precipitation and evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea. Three regional simulations were performed with the WRF model for the period 1989–2008. The model was run (1) as a standalone model, (2) coupled with the oceanic model NEMO-MED12 and (3) forced by the smoothed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fields from the second simulation. Cyclones were tracked in all simulations, and their contribution to the total rainfall and evaporation was quantified. Results show that cyclones are mainly associated with extreme precipitation, representing more than 50 % of the annual rainfall over the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, we found that cyclone-induced evaporation represents only a small fraction of the annual total, except in winter, when the most intense Mediterranean cyclones take place. Despite the significant contribution of cyclones to rainfall, our results show that there is a balance between cyclone-induced rainfall and evaporation, suggesting a weak net impact of cyclones on the Mediterranean Sea water budget. The sensitivity of our results with respect to rapid SST changes during the development of cyclones was also investigated. Both rainfall and evaporation are affected in correlation with the SST response to the atmosphere. In fact, air feedbacks to the Mediterranean Sea during the cyclones occurrence were shown to cool down the SST and consequently to reduce rainfall and evaporation at the proximity of cyclone centers.
KeywordsCyclone Relative Vorticity Freshwater Flux Cyclone Center Mediterranean Cyclone
This work is a contribution to the HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) programme through INSU–MISTRALS support and the Mediterranean region COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (Med-CORDEX) programme. This research was supported by the IPSL group for regional climate and environmental studies, with granted access to the HPC resources of IDRIS under allocation 2011 (Project Number 010227). EF was supported by the IMPACT2C program (funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme, FP7/2007–2013 under the Grant agreement 282746).
- Beuvier J, Béranger K, Lebeaupin Brossier C, Somot S, Sevault F, Drillet Y, Bourdallé-Badie R, Ferry N, Levier B, Lyard F (2012) Spreading of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water after winter 2005: time-scales and deep cyclone transport. J Geophys Res 117:C07022. doi: 10.1029/2011JC007679 Google Scholar
- Claud C, Alhammoud B, Funatsu BM, Lebeuaupin-Brossier C, Chaboureau JP, Béranger K, Drobinski P (2012) A high resolution climatology of precipitation and deep convection over the Mediterranean region from operational satellite microwave data: development and application to the evaluation of model uncertainties. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:785–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Hólm EV, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Morcrette JJ, Park BK, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thépaut JN, Vitart F (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drobinski P, Anav A, Lebeaupin Brossier C, Samson G, Stéfanon M, Bastin S, Baklouti M, Béranger K, Beuvier J, Bourdallé-Badie R, Coquart L, D’Andrea F, De Noblet-Ducoudré N, Diaz F, Dutay JC, Ethe C, Foujols MA, Khvorostyanov D, Madec G, Mancip M, Masson S, Menut L, Palmieri J, Polcher J, Turquety S, Valcke S, Viovy N (2012) Modelling the Regional Coupled Earth system (MORCE): application to process and climate studies in vulnerable regions. Env Model Softw 35:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drobinski P, Ducrocq V, Alpert P, Anagnostou E, Béranger K, Borga M, Braud I, Chanzy A, Davolio S, Delrieu G, Estournel C, Filali Boubrahmi N, Font J, Grubisic V, Gualdi S, Homar V, Ivancan-Picek B, Kottmeier C, Kotroni V, Lagouvardos K, Lionello P, Llasat MC, Ludwig W, Lutoff C, Mariotti A, Richard E, Romero R, Rotunno R, Roussot O, Ruin I, Somot S, Taupier-Letage I, Tintore J, Uijlenhoet R, Wernli H (2013) HyMeX: a 10-year multidisciplinary program on the Mediterranean water cycle. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95:1063–1082. doi: 10.1175/bams-d-12-00242.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drobinski P, Ducrocq V, Alpert P, Anagnostou E, Branger K, Borga M, Braud I, Chanzy A, Davolio S, Delrieu G, Estournel C, Filali Boubrahmi N, Font J, Grubisic V, Gualdi S, Homar V, Ivancan-Picek B, Kottmeier C, Kotroni V, Lagouvardos K, Lionello P, Llasat M, Ludwig W, Lutoff C, Mariotti A, Richard E, Romero R, Rotunno R, Roussot O, Ruin I, Somot S, Taupier-Letage I, Tintore J, Uijlenhoet R, Wernli H (2014) HyMeX, a 10-year multidisciplinary program on the Mediterranean water cycle. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95:1063–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dubois C, Somot S, Calmanti S, Carillo A, Déqué M, Dell’Aquilla A, Elizalde A, Gualdi S, Jacob D, L’Hévéder B (2012) Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere–ocean regional climate models. Clim Dyn 39:1859–1884. doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1261-4.F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lebeaupin Brossier C, Béranger K, Drobinski P (2012) Sensitivity of the North-Western Mediterranean Coastal and thermohaline circulations as simulated by the 1/12° Resolution Oceanic Model NEMO-MED12 to the space-time resolution of the atmospheric forcing. Ocean Model 43–44:94–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Millot C, Taupier-Letage I (2005) Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In: 897 the handbook of environmental chemistry, Vol 5K. Springer, pp 29–66, 898. doi: 10.1007/b107143
- Ruti PM, Somot S, Giorgi F, Dubois C, Flaounas E, Obermann A, Dell’Aquila A, Pisacane G, Harzallah A, Lombardi E, Ahrens B, Akhtar N, Alias A, Arsouze T, Aznar R, Bastin S, Bartholy J, Béranger K, Beuvier J, Bouffies-Cloché S, Brauch J, Cabos W, Calmanti S, Calvet J-C, Carillo A, Conte D, Coppola E, Dell'Aquila A, Djurdjevic V, Drobinski P, Elizalde-Arellano A, Gaertner M, Galàn P, Gallardo C, Gualdi S, Goncalves M, Jorba O, Jordà G, L'Heveder B, Lebeaupin-Brossier C, Li L, Liguori G, Lionello P, Maciàs D, Nabat P, Onol B, Raikovic B, Ramage K, Sevault F, Sannino G, MV Struglia, Sanna A, Torma C, Vervatis V (2015) MED-CORDEX initiative for Mediterranean climate studies. Bull Am Meteorol Soc (under review)Google Scholar