Climate Dynamics

, Volume 46, Issue 1–2, pp 413–426 | Cite as

Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

  • Markus G. Donat
  • Andrew D. King
  • Jonathan T. Overpeck
  • Lisa V. Alexander
  • Imke Durre
  • David J. Karoly
Article

Abstract

Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

Keywords

Extreme heat Drought Seasonal predictability Climate variability Teleconnections 20th century reanalysis GHCNDEX 

Supplementary material

382_2015_2590_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (491 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 491 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus G. Donat
    • 1
  • Andrew D. King
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jonathan T. Overpeck
    • 2
  • Lisa V. Alexander
    • 1
  • Imke Durre
    • 3
  • David J. Karoly
    • 4
  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science and Climate Change Research CentreUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geosciences and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of the EnvironmentUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.NOAA’s National Climatic Data CenterAshevilleUSA
  4. 4.ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, School of Earth SciencesUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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