Climate Dynamics

, Volume 45, Issue 7–8, pp 2001–2011 | Cite as

Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet’s response time scale

  • Patrick J. ApplegateEmail author
  • Byron R. Parizek
  • Robert E. Nicholas
  • Richard B. Alley
  • Klaus Keller


Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.


Greenland ice sheet Glaciology Ice sheet modeling Semi-empirical Sea level 



Jeremy Fyke, Aslak Grinsted, Ralf Greve, Ben Horton, Nina Kirchner, Johan Kleman, Chris Little, Michael Oppenheimer, Hans-Peter Plag, Dave Pollard, Alex Robinson, Kelsey Ruckert, and Gary Yohe provided discussions and comments on draft versions of this paper. We thank Ralf Greve for providing his ice sheet model, SICOPOLIS, freely on the Web ( Nina Kirchner, Philipp Hancke, Martin Jakobsson, and Björn Eriksson provided access to computing resources at Stockholm University, Sweden. We also thank the editor, Jian Lu, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, Integrated Assessment Program, through grant DE-SC0005171; the National Science Foundation through the Network for Sustainable Climate Risk Mangement (SCRiM) under NSF cooperative agreement GEO-1240507; and the Penn State Center for Climate Risk Management. Support for BRP and RBA was provided by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (NSF OPP 0424589), NSF grant AGS 1338832, and NASA through Grant NNX10AI04G. We also acknowledge the climate modeling groups that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5;, which supplied the climate model output used in this paper; these groups are listed in Electronic Supplementary Materials Table 1. The US Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals, provides coordinating support for CMIP5. Some figure colors were drawn from by Cynthia Brewer at Pennsylvania State University. All opinions and errors are ours.

Supplementary material

382_2014_2451_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1358 kb)
382_2014_2451_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (75 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 75 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick J. Applegate
    • 1
    Email author
  • Byron R. Parizek
    • 2
  • Robert E. Nicholas
    • 1
  • Richard B. Alley
    • 3
  • Klaus Keller
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Earth and Environmental Systems InstituteThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Mathematics and GeoscienceThe Pennsylvania State UniversityDuBoisUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeosciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Engineering and Public PolicyCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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