30-Year atmospheric temperature record derived by one-dimensional variational data assimilation of MSU/AMSU-A observations

Abstract

In the past, satellite observations of the microwave radiation emitted from the atmosphere have been directly utilized for deriving the climate tends of vertical-layer-averaged atmospheric temperatures. This study presents the 30-year atmospheric temperature trend derived by one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) data assimilation of Microwave Sounding Unit/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (MSU/AMSU-A) observations. Firstly, the radiance measurements from MSU on board the early National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-6 to NOAA-14 and AMSU-A on board NOAA-15 to -19 have been inter-calibrated to form a fundamental climate data record. A 1D-Var method is then employed to establish the thematic climate data record of atmospheric temperature profiles that are appropriate for climate change study. Verification of the MSU/AMSU-A derived temperature profiles with collocated Global Positioning System radio occultation data confirms a reasonable good accuracy of the derived atmospheric temperature profiles in the troposphere and low stratosphere. Finally, the global climate trend of the atmospheric temperature in clear-sky conditions is deduced, showing not only a global warming in the troposphere and a cooling in the stratosphere, but also a stronger warming in the upper troposphere than in the low troposphere.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. Anthes RA, Bernhardt PA, Chen Y, Cucurull L, Dymond KF, Ector D, Healy SB, Ho SP, Hunt DC, Kuo YH, Liu H, Manning K, Mccormick C, Meehan TK, Randel WJ, Rocken C, Schreiner WS, Sokolovskiy SC, Syndergaard S, Thompson DC, Trenberth KE, Wee TK, Yen NL, Zeng Z (2008) The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission early results. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 89:313–333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Boukabara SA, Garrett K, Chen W, Iturbide-Sanchez F, Grassotti C, Kongoli C, Chen R, Liu Q, Yan B, Weng F, Ferraro R, Kleespies T, Meng H (2011) MiRS: an all-weather 1DVAR satellite data assimilation & retrieval system. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 49:3249–3272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Christy JR, Spencer RW, Lobl ES (1998) Analysis of the merging procedure for the MSU daily temperature time series. J Clim 11:2016–2041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Fu Q, Jonanson CM, Warren SG, Seidel DJ (2004) Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trends. Nature 429:55–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hurrell WJ, Trenberth KE (1992) An evaluation of monthly mean MSU and ECMWF global atmospheric temperatures for monitoring climate. J Clim 5:1424–1440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Kishore P, Namboothiri SP, Jiang JH (2008) Global temperature estimates in the troposphere and stratosphere: a validation study of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 measurements. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 8:8327–8355

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Liu Q, Weng F (2005) One-dimensional variation retrieval algorithm for temperature, water vapor and cloud profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 43:1078–1095

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Liu Q, Weng F (2009) Recent stratospheric temperature observed from satellite measurements. SOLA 5:53–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Mears CA, Wentz FJ (2009) Construction of the remote sensing systems V3.2 atmospheric temperature records from the MSU and AMSU microwave sounders. J Atmos Ocean Technol 26:1040–1056

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Nash J, Forrester GF (1986) Long-term monitoring of stratospheric temperature trends using radiance measurements obtained by the TIROS-N series of NOAA spacecraft. Adv Space Res 6:37–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Santer BD et al (2005) Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science 309:1551–1556

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Santer BD, Thorne PW, Haimberger L, Taylor KE, Widley TML, Lanzante JR, Solomon S, Free M, Glecker PJ, Jones PD, Karl TR, Klein SA, Mears C, Nychka D, Schmidt GA, Sherwood SC, Wentz FJ (2008) Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. Int J Climatol 28(13):1703–1722

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Scott C (2005) Climate change & tropospheric temperature trends part I—What do we know today and where is it taking us? http://www.scottchurchdirect.com/global-warming.aspx/troposphere-temperature-trends-pt1?pg=1

  14. Weng F, Grody NC (1994) Retrieval of cloud liquid water over oceans using special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I). J Geophys Res 99:25535–25551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Weng F, Zhao L, Ferraro R, Poe G, Li X, Grody N (2003) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit cloud and precipitation algorithms. Radio Sci 38:8086–8096

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Weng F, Zou X, Qin Z (2013) Uncertainty of AMSU-A derived temperature trends in relationship with clouds and precipitation over ocean. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1958-7

    Google Scholar 

  17. Zou C, Wang W (2011) Inter-satellite calibration of AMSU-A observations for weather and climate applications. J Geophys Res 116:D23113. doi:10.1029/2011JD016205

    Google Scholar 

  18. Zou X, Navon IM, Sela J (1993) Variational data assimilation with moist threshold processes using NMC spectral model. Tellus 45A:370–387

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology project 2010CB951600 and NOAA satellite calval program. The authors thank Dr. K. Wang for his assistances in producing numerical results and figures. The views expressed in this paper reflect the opinion of the authors and do not represent the US government.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fuzhong Weng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Weng, F., Zou, X. 30-Year atmospheric temperature record derived by one-dimensional variational data assimilation of MSU/AMSU-A observations. Clim Dyn 43, 1857–1870 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2012-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • AMSU-A
  • Data assimilation
  • Climate trend