Climate Dynamics

, Volume 38, Issue 3–4, pp 547–562 | Cite as

Changma onset definition in Korea using the available water resources index and its relation to the Antarctic oscillation

  • Ki-Seon ChoiEmail author
  • Bin Wang
  • Do-Woo Kim


This study defines the Changma onset using the available water resources index (AWRI) for 25 years (1985–2009) and verifies the validity of this definition. The three conditions for defining the Changma onset are established as follows: (i) The first day exceeding the June AWRI (threshold) averaged over the 25-year period. (ii) The continuation of the value over the threshold for at least 1 week after the onset. (iii) After the continuation of more than 1 week, the non-continuation of the value under the threshold for at least 1 week. The 25-year average Changma onset date is 24 June with a standard deviation of 9 days. The defined Changma onset is verified through the analysis on the relationship with the Antarctic oscillation (AAO). AAO in June shows a high correlation with not only the Changma onset but also the June precipitation (AWRI) in Korea. These three variables are influenced by Mascarene and Australian (positive AAO pattern) highs from in the preceding March. When these two pressure systems develop, the cold cross-equatorial flow in the direction from the region around Australia to the equator is intensified, which in turn, forces a western North Pacific high (WNPH) to develop northward; this eventually drives the rain belt north. As a result, the Changma begins early in the positive AAO phase, and the June precipitation increases in Korea. In addition, a WNPH that develops more northward increases the landfalling frequency of tropical cyclones in Korea, which plays an important role in increasing the June precipitation.


Available water resources index Antarctic oscillation Changma Mascarene high Australian high Tropical cyclone 



We would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive and critical comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Typhoon Center/Korea Meteorological AdministrationJejuKorea
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology, International Pacific Research CenterUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Atmospheric SciencesPukyong National UniversityBusanKorea

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