Climate Dynamics

, Volume 34, Issue 2–3, pp 201–222 | Cite as

Effect of the large-scale atmospheric circulation on the variability of the Arctic Ocean freshwater export

  • Alexandra Jahn
  • Bruno Tremblay
  • Lawrence A. Mysak
  • Robert Newton
Article

Abstract

Freshwater (FW) leaves the Arctic Ocean through sea-ice export and the outflow of low-salinity upper ocean water. Whereas the variability of the sea-ice export is known to be mainly caused by changes in the local wind and the thickness of the exported sea ice, the mechanisms that regulate the variability of the liquid FW export are still under investigation. To better understand these mechanisms, we present an analysis of the variability of the liquid FW export from the Arctic Ocean for the period 1950–2007, using a simulation from an energy and mass conserving global ocean–sea ice model, coupled to an Energy Moisture Balance Model of the atmosphere, and forced with daily winds from the NCEP reanalysis. Our results show that the simulated liquid FW exports through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and the Fram Strait lag changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Arctic by 1 and 6 years, respectively. The variability of the liquid FW exports is caused by changes in the cyclonicity of the atmospheric forcing, which cause a FW redistribution in the Arctic through changes in Ekman transport in the Beaufort Gyre. This in turn causes changes in the sea surface height (SSH) and salinity upstream of the CAA and Fram Strait, which affect the velocity and salinity of the outflow. The SSH changes induced by the large-scale atmospheric circulation are found to explain a large part of the variance of the liquid FW export, while the local wind plays a much smaller role. We also show that during periods of increased liquid FW export from the Arctic, the strength of the simulated Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is reduced and the ocean heat transport into the Arctic is increased. These results are particularly relevant in the context of global warming, as climate simulations predict an increase in the liquid FW export from the Arctic during the twenty-first century.

Keywords

Arctic Ocean Freshwater Modeling MOC Ocean heat flux 

References

  1. Aagaard K, Carmack EC (1989) The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J Geophys Res 94(C10):14,485–14,498. doi:10.1029/JC094iC10p14485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aagaard K, Greisman P (1975) Toward new mass and heat budgets for the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 80:3821–3827. doi:10.1029/JC080i027p03821 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aagaard K, Swift JH, Carmack EC (1985) Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean seas. J Geophys Res 90(C7):4833–4846. doi:10.1029/JC090iC03p04833 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arfeuille G, Mysak LA, Tremblay LB (2000) Simulation of the interannual variability of the wind-driven Arctic sea-ice cover during 1958–1998. Clim Dyn 16(2–3):107–121. doi:10.1007/PL00013732 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arzel O, Fichefet T, Goosse H, Dufresne JL (2008) Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM. Clim Dyn 30(1):37–58. doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0258-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger A (1978) Long-term variations of daily insolation and quaternary climatic changes. J Atmos Sci 35:2362–2367. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<2362:LTVODI>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bitz CM, Holland MM, Weaver AJ, Eby M (2001) Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model. J Geophys Res 106(C2):2441–2464. doi:10.1029/1999JC000113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bitz CM, Gent PG, Woodgate RA, Holland MM, Lindsay R (2006) The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J Clim 19(11):2437–2450. doi:10.1175/JCLI3756.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blindheim J (1989) Cascading of Barents Sea bottom water into the Norwegian Sea. Rapp PV Réun Cons Int Explor Mer 188:49–58Google Scholar
  10. Blindheim J, Borovkov V, Hansen B, Malmberg SA, Turrell WR, Østerhus S (2000) Upper layer cooling and freshening in the Norwegian Sea in relation to atmospheric forcing. Deep Sea Res 47(4):655–680. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(99)00070-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickson RR, Meincke J, Malmberg SA, Lee AJ (1988) The “Great Salinity Anomaly" in the northern North Atlantic 1968–1982. Prog Oceanogr 20(2):103–151. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(88)90049-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickson RR, Osborn TJ, Hurrell JW, Meincke J, Blindheim J, Adlandsvik B, Vinje T, Alekseev G, Maslowski W (2000) The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. J Clim 13(15):2671–2696. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2671:TAORTT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickson R, Rudels B, Dye S, Karcher M, Meincke J, Yashayaev I (2007) Current estimates of freshwater flux through Arctic and subarctic seas. Prog Oceanogr 73(3–4):210–230. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2006.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fahrbach E, Meincke J, Østerhus S, Rohardt G, Schauer U, Tverberg V, Verduin J (2001) Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait. Polar Res 20(2):217–224. doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.2001.tb00059.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fanning AG, Weaver AJ (1996) An atmospheric energy-moisture model: Climatology, interpentadal climate change and coupling to an ocean general circulation model. J Geophys Res 101:15,111–15,128. doi:10.1029/96JD01017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ganachaud A, Wunsch C (2000) Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature 408:453–457. doi:10.1038/35044048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gent PR, McWilliams JC (1990) Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J Phys Oceanogr 20(1):150–155. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:IMIOCM>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gerdes R, Köberle C (2007) Comparison of Arctic sea ice thickness variability in IPCC Climate of the 20th Century experiments and in ocean-sea ice hindcasts. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JC003616
  19. Gerdes R, Karcher M, Köberle C, Fieg K (2008) Simulating the long-term variability of liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean. In: Dickson RR, Meincke J, Rhines P (eds) Arctic-subarctic ocean fluxes, chap 17. Springer Science and Business Media B. V., pp 405–425Google Scholar
  20. Gregory JM, Saenko OA, Weaver AJ (2003) The role of the Atlantic freshwater balance in the hysteresis of the meridional overturning circulation. Clim Dyn 21(7–8):707–717. doi:10.1007/s00382-003-0359-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Griffies SM, Biastoch A, Böning C, Bryan F, Danabasoglu G, Chassignet EP, England MH, Gerdes R, Haak H, Hallberg RW, Hazeleger W, Jungclaus J, Large WG, Madec G, Pirani A, Samuels BL, Scheinert M, Gupta AS, Severijns CA, Simmons HL, Treguier AM, Winton M, Yaeger S, Yin J (2009) Coordinated ocean-ice reference experiment (COREs). Ocean Model 26(1–2):1–46. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haak H, Jungclaus J, Koenigk T, Sein D, Mikolajewicz U (2005) Arctic Ocean freshwater budget variability. Arctic Subarctic Ocean Fluxes (ASOF) Newsl 3:6–8Google Scholar
  23. Häkkinen S (1995) Simulated interannual variability of the Greenland Sea Deep Water formation and its connection to surface forcing. J Geophys Res 100(C3):4761–4770. doi:10.1029/94JC01900 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Häkkinen S, Mellor GL (1992) Modeling the seasonal variability of a coupled Arctic ice-ocean system. J Geophys Res 97:20,285–20,304. doi:10.1029/92JC02037 Google Scholar
  25. Häkkinen S, Proshutinsky A (2004) Freshwater content variability in the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 109. doi:10.1029/2003JC001940
  26. Harder M, Lemke P, Hilmer M (1998) Simulation of sea ice transport through Fram Strait: Natural variability and sensitivity to forcing. J Geophys Res 103(C3):5595–5606. doi:10.1029/97JC02472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hilmer M, Jung T (2000) Evidence for a recent change in the link between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice export. Geophys Res Lett 27(7):989–992. doi:10.1029/1999GL010944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holland MM, Bitz CM, Eby M, Weaver AJ (2001) The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J Clim 14(5):656–675. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0656:TROIOI>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holland MM, Finnis J, Serreze MC (2006) Simulated Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. J Clim 19(23):6221–6242. doi:10.1175/JCLI3967.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holland MM, Finnis J, Barrett AP, Serreze MC (2007) Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets. Geophys Res Lett 112. doi:10.1029/2006JG000354
  31. Holloway G, Dupont F, Golubeva E, Häkkinen S, Hunke E, Jin M, Karcher M, Kauker F, Maltrud M, Maqueda MAM, Maslowski W, Platov G, Stark D, Steele M, Suzuki T, Wang J, Zhang J (2007) Water properties and circulation in Arctic Ocean models. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JC003642
  32. Hunke EC, Dukowicz JK (1997) An elastic-viscous-plastic model for sea ice dynamics. J Phys Oceanogr 27(9):1849–1867. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1849:AEVPMF>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunkins K, Whitehead JA (1992) Laboratory simulation of exchange through Fram Strait. J Geophys Res 97(C7):11,299–11,321. doi:10.1029/92JC00735 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ingvaldsen RB, Asplin L, Loeng H (2004) The seasonal cycle in the Atlantic transport to the Barents Sea during the years 1997-2001. Cont Shelf Res 24:1015–1032. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Jenne R, Joseph D (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77(3):437–471. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karcher M, Gerdes R, Kauker F, Köberle C, Yashayaev I (2005) Arctic Ocean change heralds North Atlantic freshening. Geophys Res Lett 32. doi:10.1029/2005GL023861
  37. Kauker F, Gerdes R, Karcher M, Köberle C, Lieser JL (2003) Variability of Arctic and North Atlantic sea ice: A combined analysis of model results and observations from 1978 to 2001. J Geophys Res 108(C6). doi:10.1029/2002JC001573
  38. Keeling CD, Whorf TP (2005) Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In: Trends: a compendium of data on global change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USAGoogle Scholar
  39. Kliem N, Greenberg DA (2003) Diagnostic simulations of the summer circulation in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Atmos Ocean 41(4):273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Köberle C, Gerdes R (2003) Mechanisms determining the variability of Arctic sea ice conditions and export. J Clim 16(17):2843–2858. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2843:MDTVOA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Köberle C, Gerdes R (2007) Simulated variability of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance 1948–2001. J Phys Oceanogr 37(6):1628–1644. doi:10.1175/JPO3063.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koenigk T, Mikolajewicz U, Haak H, Jungclaus J (2007) Arctic freshwater export in the 20th and 21st centuries. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JG000274
  43. Komuro Y, Hasumi H (2005) Intensification of the Atlantic deep circulation by the Canadian Archipelago throughflow. J Phys Oceanogr 35(5):775–789. doi:10.1175/JPO2709.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kuzmina SI, Bengtsson L, Johannessen OM, Drange H, Bobylev LP, Miles MW (2005) The North Atlantic Oscillation and greenhouse-gas forcing. Geophys Res Lett 32. doi:10.1029/2004GL021064
  45. Kwok R, Rothrock DA (1999) Variability of Fram Strait ice flux and North Atlantic Oscillation. J Geophys Res 104(C3):5177–5190. doi:10.1029/1998JC900103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lammers RB, Shiklomanov AI, Vörösmarty CJ, Fekete BM, Peterson BJ (2001) Assessment of contemporary Arctic river runoff based on observational discharge records. J Geophys Res 106(D4):3321–3334. doi:10.1029/2000JD900444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lohmann G, Gerdes R (1998) Sea ice effects on the sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation. J Clim 11(11):2789–2803. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2789:SIEOTS>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meredith M, Heywood K, Dennis P, Goldson L, White R, Fahrbach E, Schauer U, Østerhus S (2001) Freshwater fluxes through the western Fram Strait. Geophys Res Lett 28(8):1615–1618. doi:10.1029/2000GL011992 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller JR, Russell GL (2000) Projected impact of climate change on the freshwater and salt budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a global climate model. Geophys Res Lett 27(8):1183–1186. doi:10.1029/1999GL007001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mysak LA, Venegas SA (1998) Decadal climate oscillations in the Arctic: A new feedback loop for atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions. Geophys Res Lett 25(19):3607–3610. doi:10.1029/98GL02782 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mysak LA, Manak DK, Marsden RF (1990) Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle. Clim Dyn 5(2):111–133. doi:10.1007/BF00207426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mysak LA, Wright KM, Sedláček J, Eby M (2005) Simulation of sea ice and ocean variability in the Arctic during 1955–2002 with an intermediate complexity model. Atmos Ocean 43(1):101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Newton B, Tremblay LB, Cane MA, Schlosser P (2006) A simple model of the Arctic Ocean response to annular atmospheric modes. J Geophys Res 111. doi:10.1029/2004JC002622
  54. Newton R, Schlosser P, Martinson D, Maslowski W (2008) Freshwater distribution in the Arctic Ocean: simulation with a high-resolution model and model-data comparison. J Geophys Res 113. doi:10.1029/2007JC004111
  55. Osborn TJ (2004) Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal variability and greenhouse gas forcing. Clim Dyn 22:605–623. doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0405-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pacanowski R (1995) MOM 2 documentation, user’s guide, and reference manual. GFDL Ocean Group Technical Report, NOAA, PrinctonGoogle Scholar
  57. Pfirman S, Haxby WF, Colony R, Rigor I (2004) Variability in the Arctic sea ice drift. Geophys Res Lett 31. doi:10.1029/2004GL020063
  58. Polyakov IV, Alexeev VA, Belchansky GI, Dmitrenko IA, Ivanov VV, Kirillov SA, Korablev AA, Steele M, Timokhov LA, Yashayaev I (2008) Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes. J Clim 21:364–384. doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1748.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prange M, Gerdes R (2006) The role of surface freshwater flux boundary conditions in Arctic Ocean modelling. Ocean Model 13(1):25–43. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2005.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Prinsenberg SJ, Bennett EB (1987) Mixing and transport in Barrow Strait, the central part of the Northwest Passage. Cont Shelf Res 7(8):913–935. doi:10.1016/0278-4343(87)90006-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prinsenberg SJ, Hamilton J (2005) Monitoring the volume, freshwater and heat fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Atmos Ocean 43(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Proshutinsky AY, Johnson MA (1997) Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 102(C6):12,493–12,514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Proshutinsky A, Bourke RH, McLaughlin FA (2002) The role of the Beaufort Gyre in Arctic climate variability: Seasonal to decadal climate scales. Geophys Res Lett 29(23). doi:10.1029/2002GL015847
  64. Proshutinsky A, Ashik I, Häkkinen S, Hunke E, Krishfield R, Maltrud M, Maslowski W, Zhang J (2007) Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from AOMIP models. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JC003916
  65. Proshutinsky A, Krishfield R, Timmermans ML, Toole J, Carmack E, McLaughlin F, Zimmermann S, Itoh M, Shimada K (2009) The Beaufort Gyre fresh water reservoir: state and variability from observations. J Geophys Res (in press)Google Scholar
  66. Rennermalm AK, Wood EF, Déry SJ, Weaver AJ, Eby M (2006) Sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation to Arctic Ocean runoff. Geophys Res Lett 33. doi:10.1029/2006GL026124
  67. Rennermalm AK, Wood EF, Weaver AJ, Eby M, Déry SJ (2007) Relative sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to river discharge into Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JG000330
  68. Rudels B (1987) On the mass balance of the Polar Ocean with special emphasis on the Fram Strait. Norsk Polar Skrifter 188:1–53Google Scholar
  69. Saenko OA, Wiebe EC, Weaver AJ (2003) North Atlantic response to the above-normal export of sea ice from the Arctic. J Geophys Res 108(C7). doi:10.1029/2001JC001166
  70. Saenko OA, Eby M, Weaver AJ (2004) The effect of sea-ice extent in the North Atlantic on the stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments. Clim Dyn 22(6–7):689–699. doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0414-0 Google Scholar
  71. Schauer U, Fahrbach E, Osterhus S, Rohardt G (2004) Arctic warming through the Fram Strait: Oceanic heat transport from 3 years of measurements. J Geophys Res 109. doi:10.1029/2003JC001823
  72. Sedláček J, Mysak LA (2009) Sensitivity of sea ice to wind stress and radiative forcing since 1500: A model study of the Little Ice Age and beyond. Clim Dyn 32(6):817–831. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0406-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sedláček J, Lemieux JF, Mysak LA, Tremblay LB, Holland DM (2007) The granular sea-ice model in spherical coordinates and its application to a global climate model. J Clim 20(24):5946–5961. doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1664.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Serreze MC, Francis JA (2006) The Arctic amplification debate. Climatic Change 76(3–4):241–264. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9017-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Serreze MC, Barrett AP, Slater AG, Woodgate RA, Aagaard K, Lammers RB, Steele M, Moritz R, Meredith M, Lee CM (2006) The large-scale freshwater cycle of the Arctic. J Geophys Res 111. doi:10.1029/2005JC003424
  76. Simonsen K, Haugan PM (1996) Heat budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas. J Geophys Res 101(C3):6553–6576. doi:10.1029/95JC03305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Steele M, Ermold W (2007) Steric sea level change in the Northern Seas. J Clim 20(3):403–417. doi:10.1175/JCLI4022.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Steele M, Morison JH (1993) Hydrography and vertical fluxes of heat and salt northest of Svalbard in autumn. J Geophys Res 98(C6):10,013–10,024. doi:10.1029/93JC00937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Steele M, Thomas D, Abd S, Martin DR (1996) A simple model study of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance. J Geophys Res 101(C9):20,833–20,848. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2079:PAGOHW>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steele M, Morley R, Ermold W (2001) PHC: A global ocean hydrography with a high-quality Arctic Ocean. J Clim 14(9):2079–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steiner N, Holloway G, Gerdes R, Häkkinen S, Holland D, Karcher M, Kauker F, Maslowski W, Proshutinsky A, Steele M, Zhang J (2004) Comparing modeled streamfunction, heat and freshwater content in the Arctic Ocean. Ocean Model 6:265–284. doi:10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00013-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Timmermans ML, Toole J, Krishfield R, Winsor P (2008) Ice-Tethered Profiler observations of the double-diffusive staircase in the Canada Basin thermocline. J Geophys Res 113. doi:10.1029/2008JC004829
  83. Tremblay LB (2001) Can we consider the Arctic Oscillation independently from the Barents Oscillation? Geophys Res Lett 28(22):4227–4230. doi:10.1029/2000GL013740 Google Scholar
  84. Trenberth KE (1990) Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull Am Meteor Soc 71(7):988–993. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1990)071<0988:ROICCI>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Trenberth KE, Hurrell JW (1994) Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Clim Dyn 9(6):303–319. doi:10.1007/s003820050027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tucker WB, Weatherly JW, Eppler DT, Farmer LD, Bentley DL (2001) Evidence for rapid thinning of sea ice in the weastern Arctic Ocean at the end of the 1980’s. Geophys Res Lett 28:2851–2854. doi:10.1029/2001GL012967 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vinje T (2001) Fram Strait ice fluxes and atmospheric circulation: 1950–2000. J Clim 14(16):3508–3517. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3508:FSIFAA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vinje T, Nordlund N, Kvambekk Å (1998) Monitoring ice thickness in Fram Strait. J Geophys Res 103(C5):10,437–10,449. doi:10.1029/97JC03360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weaver AJ, Eby M (1997) On the numerical implementation of advection schemes for use in conjunction with various mixing parameterizations in the GFDL ocean model. J Phys Oceanogr 27(2):369–377. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<0369:OTNIOA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Weaver AJ, Marotzke J, Cummins PF, Sarachik E (1993) Stability and variability of the thermohaline circulation. J Phys Oceanogr 23(1):39–60. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<0039:SAVOTT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weaver AJ, Eby M, Wiebe EC, Bitz CM, Duffy PB, Ewen TL, Fanning AF, Holland MM, MacFayden A, Matthews HD, Meissner KJ, Saenko O, Schmittner A, Wang H, Yoshimori M (2001) The UVic Earth System Climate Model: model description, climatology and application to past, present and future climates. Atmos Ocean 39(4):361–428Google Scholar
  92. Woodgate RA, Aagaard K (2005) Revising the Bering Strait freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 32. doi:10.1029/2004GL021747
  93. Yang J, Comiso J, Krishfield R, Honjo S (2001) Synoptic storms and the development of the 1997 warming and freshening event in the Beaufort Sea. J Geophys Res 28(5):799–802. doi:10.1029/2000GL011896 Google Scholar
  94. Yang J, Camiso J, Walsh D, Krishfield R, Honjo S (2004) Storm-driven mixing and potential impact on the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res 109. doi:10.1029/2001JC001248
  95. Zhang X, Zhang J (2001) Heat and freshwater budgets and pathways in the Arctic Mediterranean in a coupled ocean/sea-ice model. J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 57:207–234Google Scholar
  96. Zhang J, Hibler WD, Steele M, Rothrock DA (1998) Arctic ice-ocean modeling with and without climate restoring. J Phys Oceanogr 28:191–217. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<0191:AIOMWA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang X, Ikeda M, Walsh J (2003) Arctic sea ice and freshwater changes driven by the atmospheric leading mode in a coupled sea ice-ocean model. J Clim 16(13):2159–2177. doi:10.1175/2758.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Jahn
    • 1
  • Bruno Tremblay
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lawrence A. Mysak
    • 1
  • Robert Newton
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Lamont-Doherty Earth ObservatoryColumbia University of New YorkPalisadesUSA

Personalised recommendations