Climate Dynamics

, Volume 30, Issue 7–8, pp 887–907 | Cite as

Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data

  • M. J. Power
  • J. Marlon
  • N. Ortiz
  • P. J. Bartlein
  • S. P. Harrison
  • F. E. Mayle
  • A. Ballouche
  • R. H. W. Bradshaw
  • C. Carcaillet
  • C. Cordova
  • S. Mooney
  • P. I. Moreno
  • I. C. Prentice
  • K. Thonicke
  • W. Tinner
  • C. Whitlock
  • Y. Zhang
  • Y. Zhao
  • A. A. Ali
  • R. S. Anderson
  • R. Beer
  • H. Behling
  • C. Briles
  • K. J. Brown
  • A. Brunelle
  • M. Bush
  • P. Camill
  • G. Q. Chu
  • J. Clark
  • D. Colombaroli
  • S. Connor
  • A.-L. Daniau
  • M. Daniels
  • J. Dodson
  • E. Doughty
  • M. E. Edwards
  • W. Finsinger
  • D. Foster
  • J. Frechette
  • M.-J. Gaillard
  • D. G. Gavin
  • E. Gobet
  • S. Haberle
  • D. J. Hallett
  • P. Higuera
  • G. Hope
  • S. Horn
  • J. Inoue
  • P. Kaltenrieder
  • L. Kennedy
  • Z. C. Kong
  • C. Larsen
  • C. J. Long
  • J. Lynch
  • E. A. Lynch
  • M. McGlone
  • S. Meeks
  • S. Mensing
  • G. Meyer
  • T. Minckley
  • J. Mohr
  • D. M. Nelson
  • J. New
  • R. Newnham
  • R. Noti
  • W. Oswald
  • J. Pierce
  • P. J. H. Richard
  • C. Rowe
  • M. F. Sanchez Goñi
  • B. N. Shuman
  • H. Takahara
  • J. Toney
  • C. Turney
  • D. H. Urrego-Sanchez
  • C. Umbanhowar
  • M. Vandergoes
  • B. Vanniere
  • E. Vescovi
  • M. Walsh
  • X. Wang
  • N. Williams
  • J. Wilmshurst
  • J. H. Zhang
Article

Abstract

Fire activity has varied globally and continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in response to long-term changes in global climate and shorter-term regional changes in climate, vegetation, and human land use. We have synthesized sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning since the LGM and present global maps showing changes in fire activity for time slices during the past 21,000 years (as differences in charcoal accumulation values compared to pre-industrial). There is strong broad-scale coherence in fire activity after the LGM, but spatial heterogeneity in the signals increases thereafter. In North America, Europe and southern South America, charcoal records indicate less-than-present fire activity during the deglacial period, from 21,000 to ∼11,000 cal yr BP. In contrast, the tropical latitudes of South America and Africa show greater-than-present fire activity from ∼19,000 to ∼17,000 cal yr BP and most sites from Indochina and Australia show greater-than-present fire activity from 16,000 to ∼13,000 cal yr BP. Many sites indicate greater-than-present or near-present activity during the Holocene with the exception of eastern North America and eastern Asia from 8,000 to ∼3,000 cal yr BP, Indonesia and Australia from 11,000 to 4,000 cal yr BP, and southern South America from 6,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP where fire activity was less than present. Regional coherence in the patterns of change in fire activity was evident throughout the post-glacial period. These complex patterns can largely be explained in terms of large-scale climate controls modulated by local changes in vegetation and fuel load.

Keywords

Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction Biomass burning Palaeofire regimes Charcoal Data-model comparisons 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The data analyses on which this paper is based were made at a workshop of the Palaeofire Working Group of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) Fast Track Initiative on Fire. We thank the IGBP and Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System (QUEST) for providing funding for this workshop. The construction of the charcoal database has been supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), QUEST funding to the QUEST-Deglaciation Project and by Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC) funding under the Joint RAPID program to the ORMEN project. Most of the data (published and unpublished) included in the compilation has been provided by the co-authors or extracted from publications by those co-authors who are regional coordinators of the Palaeofire Working Group. We also thank the International Multiproxy Paleofire Database (IMPD) for data contributions. The version of the charcoal database (GCD, V1) used for this paper is available from British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC) (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/home/index.html) and from the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) website (http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/QUEST_IGBP_Global_Palaeofire_WG). Animations showing the change in charcoal abundance at 500-year time steps from the LGM to present are also available on the GPWG website.

References

  1. Andreae MO, Merlet P (2001) Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 15:955–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berger AL (1978) Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes. J Atmos Sci 35:2362–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berger AL, Loutre MF (1991) Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quat Sci Rev 10:297–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berglund BE, Malmer N, Persson T (1991) Landscape-ecological aspects of long-term changes in the Ystad area. In: Berglund, BE (ed) The cultural landscape during 6000 years in southern Sweden—the Ystad Project. Ecol Bull 41:405–424Google Scholar
  5. Bigelow NH, Brubaker LB, Edwards ME, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Anderson PM, Andreev AA, Bartlein PJ, Christensen TR, Cramer W, Kaplan JO, Lozhkin AV, Matveyeva NV, Murray DF, McGuire AD, Razzhivin VY, Ritchie JC, Smith B, Walker DA, Gayewski K, Wolf V, Holmqvist BH, Igarashi Y, Kremenetskii K, Paus A, Pisaric MFJ, Volkova VS (2003) Climatic change and Arctic ecosystems I. Vegetation changes north of 55°N between the last glacial maximum, mid-Holocene, and present. J Geophys Res-Atmos 108, No. D19, 8170. doi:10.1029/2002JD002558
  6. Black MP, Mooney SD (2006) Holocene fire history from the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, New South Wales, Australia: the climate, humans and fire nexus. Reg Environ Change 6:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bond WJ, Keeley JE (2005) Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 20(7):387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braconnot P, Otto-Bleisner B, Harrison SP, Joussaume S, Peterschmitt J-Y, Abe-Ouchi A, Crucifix M, Driesschaert E, Fichefet Th, Hewitt CD, Kagayama M, Kitoh A, Loutre M-F, Marti O, Merkel U, Ramstein G, Valdes P, Weber L, Yu Y, Zhao Y (2007). Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the mid-Holocene and Last Glacial maximum, part 1: experiments and large-scale features. Clim Past 3:261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brook EJ, Sowers T, Orchard J (1996) Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years. Science 273:1087–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burbridge RE, Mayle FE, Killeen TJ (2004) Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon. Quat Res 61:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bush MB, Colinvaux PA, Wiemann MC, Piperno DR, Liu K-B (1990) Late Pleistocene temperature depression and vegetation change in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Quat Res 34:330–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bush MB, De Oliveira PE, Colinvaux PA, Miller MC, Moreno E (2004a) Amazonian paleoecological histories: one hill, three watersheds. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 214:359–393Google Scholar
  13. Bush MB, Silman MR, Urrego DH (2004b) 48,000 years of climate and forest change from a biodiversity hotspot. Science 303:827–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carcaillet C, Almquist H, Asnong H, Bradshaw RHW, Carrion JS, Gaillard M-J, Gajewski K, Haas JN, Haberle SG, Hadorn P, Muller SD, Richard PJH, Richoz I, Rosch M, Sanchez Goni MF, von Stedingk H, Stevenson AC, Talon B, Tardy C, Tinner W, Tryterud E, Wick L, Willis KJ (2002) Holocene biomass burning and global dynamics of the carbon cycle. Chemosphere 49:845–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carcaillet C, Bouvier M, Fréchette B, Larouche AC, Richard PJH (2001) Comparison of pollen-slide and sieving methods in lacustrine charcoal analyses for local and regional fire history. Holocene 11:467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carcaillet C, Richard PJH (2000) Holocene changes in seasonal precipitation highlighted by fire incidence in eastern Canada. Clim Dyn 16:549–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carmona-Moreno C, Belward A, Malingreau J-P, Hartley A, Garcia-Alegre M, Antonovskiy M, Buchshtaber V, Pivovarov V (2005) Characterizing interannual variations in global fire calendar using data from Earth observing satellites. Glob Change Biol 11:1537–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark JS, Merkt J, Muller H (1989) Post-glacial fire, vegetation, and human history on the northern alpine forelands, southwestern Germany. J Ecol 77:897–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark JS, Lynch J, Stocks BJ, Goldammer JG (1998) Relationship between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia. Holocene 8(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cofer WR III, Koutzenogii KP, Kokorin A, Ezcurra A (1997) Biomass burning emissions and the atmosphere. In: Clark JS, Cachier H, Goldammer JG, Stocks B (eds) Sediment records of biomass burning and global change. NATO ASI series 1: global environmental change, vol 51. Springer, Berlin, pp.189–206Google Scholar
  21. Colinvaux PA, De Oliveira PE, Moreno JE, Miller MC, Bush MB (1996) A long pollen record from lowland Amazonia: Forest and cooling in glacial times. Science 274:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooke R (1998) Human settlement of Central America and northernmost South America (14,000–8000 BP). Quat Int 49/50:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cook KH, Vizy EK (2006) South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: delayed onset of the South American monsoon. J Geophys Res 3:1–21Google Scholar
  24. Delarze R, Calderari D, Hainard P (1992) Effects of fire on forest dynamics in southern Switzerland. J Veg Sci 3:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fairbanks RG, Mortlock RA, Chiu T-C, Cao L, Kaplan A, Guilderson TP, Fairbanks TW, Bloom AL (2005) Marine radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years B.P. based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quat Sci Rev 24:1781–1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Finsinger W, Tinner W, van der Knaap WO, Ammann B (2006) The expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe? Quat Sci Rev 25:612–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Francois L, Kaplan J, Otto D, Roelandt C, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Warnant P, Ramstein G (2000) Comparison of vegetation distributions and terrestrial carbon budgets reconstructed for the last glacial maximum with several biosphere models. In: Proceedings of the third PMIP workshopGoogle Scholar
  28. Froyd CA (2006) Holocene fire in the Scottish Highlands: evidence from macroscopic charcoal records. Holocene 16(2):235–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gardner JJ, Whitlock C (2001) Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies. Holocene 11:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gill AM (1977) Management of fire-prone vegetation for plant species conservation in Australia. Search 8(1–2):20–26Google Scholar
  31. Gill AM, Bradstock RA (1995) Extinctions of biota by fires. In: Bradstock RA, Auld TD, Keith DA, Kingsford R, Lunney D, Sivertsen D (eds) Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, pp 309–322Google Scholar
  32. Gupta AK (2004) Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration. Curr Sci 87(1):54–59Google Scholar
  33. Haberle SG, David B (2004) Climates of change: human dimensions of Holocene environmental change in low latitudes PEPII transect. Quat Int 118–119:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haberle SG, Ledru M-P (2001) Correlations among charcoal records of fires from the past 16,000 years in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Central and South America. Quat Res 55:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harrison SP, Dodson J (1993) Climates of Australia and New Guinea since 18,000 yr BP. In: Wright HE Jr, Kutzbach JE, Webb T III, Ruddiman WF, Street-Perrott FA, Bartlein PJ (eds) Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 265–293Google Scholar
  36. Higuera PE, Peters ME, Brubaker LB, Gavin DG (2007) Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records with a simulation model. Quat Sci Rev 26:1790–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hope G, Kershaw AP, van der Kaars S, Xiangjun S, Liew P-M, Heusser LE, Takahara H, McGlone M, Miyoshi N, Moss PT (2004) History of vegetation and habitat change in the Austral-Asian region. Quat Int 118–119:103–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Horn S (2007) Late Quaternary lake and swamp sediments: recorders of climate and environment. In: Bundschuh J, Alvarado GE (eds) Central America: geology, resources, hazards, vol 1. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 423–441Google Scholar
  39. Huang CY, Liew PM, Zhao M, Chang TC, Kuo CM, Chen MT, Wang CH, Zheng LF (1997) Deep sea and lake records of the Southeast Asian paleomonsoons for the last 25 thousand years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 146:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huber U, Markgraf V, Schäbitz F (2003) Geographical and temporal trends in Late Quaternary fire histories of Fuego-Patagonia, South America. Quat Sci Rev 23:1079–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huntley B, Birks HJB (1983) An Atlas of past and present pollen maps for Europe: 0–13000 years ago. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Huntley B (1993) Rapid early-Holocene migration and high abundance of hazel (Corylus avellana L.): alternative hypotheses. In: Chambers FM (eds) Climate change and human impact on the landscape. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 205–215Google Scholar
  43. Innes JB, Blackford JJ (2003) The ecology of late Mesolithic woodland disturbances: model testing with fungal spore assemblage data. J Archaeol Sci 30:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Indermühle A, Stocker TF, Joos F, Fischer H, Smith HJ, Wahlen M, Deck B, Mastroianni D, Tschumi J, Blunier T, Meyer R, Stauffer B (1999) Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature 398:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kershaw AP, Penny D, van der Kaars S, Anshari G, Thamotherampili A (2001) Vegetation and climate in lowland southeast Asia at the Last Glacial Maximum. In: Metcalfe I, Smith JMB, Morwood M, Davidson I (eds) Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia–Australasia. Balkema, Lisse, pp 227–236Google Scholar
  46. Kershaw AP, Nanson GC (1993) The last full glacial cycle in the Australian region. Glob Planet Change 7:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kohfeld KE, Harrison SP (2000) How well can we simulate past climates? Evaluating the models using global palaeoenvironmental datasets. Quat Sci Rev 19:321–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kohfeld KE, Harrison SP (2001) DIRTMAP: the geological record of dust. Earth Sci Rev 54:81–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kutzbach JE, Gallimore R, Harrison SP, Behling P, Selin R, Laarif F (1998) Climate and biome simulations for the past 21,000 years. Quat Sci Rev 17(6–7):473–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Labeyrie L, Cole J, Alverson K, Stocker T (2003) The history of climate dynamics in the Late Quaternary. In: Alverson KD, Bradley RS, Pedersen TF (eds) Paleoclimate, global change and the future. Springer, Berlin, pp 33–61Google Scholar
  51. Lagerås P (2000) Järnålderns odlingssystem och landskapets långsiktiga förändring. In: Lagerås, P (ed) Arkeologi och paleoekologi i sydvästra Småland. Riksantikvarieämbetet. Arkeologiska undersökningar Skrifter 34:167–230Google Scholar
  52. Lamy F, Kaiser J, Ninnemann U, Hebbeln D, Arz HW, Stoner J (2004) Antarctic timing of surface water changes off Chile and Patagonian ice sheet response. Science 304:1959–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu K-B, Colinvaux PA (1985) Forest changes in the Amazon basin during the last glacial maximum. Nature 318:556–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu Z, Harrison SP, Kutzbach JE, Otto-Bleisner B (2004) Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback. Clim Dyn 22:157–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Long CJ, Whitlock C, Bartlein P, Millspaugh SH (1998) A 9000-year fire history from the Oregon Coast Range, based on a high-resolution charcoal study. Can J For Res 28:774–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. MacDonald GM, Beilman DW, Kremenetski V, Sheng Y, Smith LC, Velichko AA (2006) Rapid early development of circumarctic peatlands and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 variations. Science 314:385–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markgraf V (1993) Paleoenvironments and paleoclimates in Tierra del Fuego and southernmost Patagonia, South America. Palaeogeogr, Palaeolclimatol, Palaeoecol 102:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Markgraf V, Dodson JR, Kershaw PA, McGlone M, Nicholls N (1992) Evolution of late Pleistocene and Holocene climates in the circum South Pacific land areas. Clim Dyn 6:193–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marlon J, Bartlein P, Whitlock C (2006) Fire-fuel-climate linkages in the northwestern USA during the Holocene. Holocene 16(8):1059–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meyer GA, Wells SG, Jull AJT (1995) Fire and alluvial chronology in Yellowstone National Park: climatic and intrinsic controls on Holocene geomorphic processes. Geol Soc Am Bull 107:1211–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Millspaugh S, Whitlock C, Bartlein P (2000) Variations in fire frequency and climate over the past 17000 yr in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28(3):211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Monnin E, Indermühle A, Dällenbach A, Flückiger J, Stauffer B, Stocker TF, Raynaud D, Barnola J-M (2001) Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial termination. Science 291:112–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moreno PI (2000) Climate, fire, and vegetation between about 13,000 and 9200 14C yr BP in the Chilean Lake District. Quat Res 54:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moreno PI, Lowell TV, Jacobson GL, Denton GH (1999) Abrupt vegetation and climate changes during the last glacial maximum and last termination in the Chilean Lake District: a case study from Canal de La Puntilla (41°S). Geografiska Annaler 81A:285–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mouillot F, Field CB (2005) Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1°× 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century. Glob Change Biol 11:398–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nanson GC, Cohen TJ, Doyle CJ, Price DM (2003) Alluvial evidence of major late-Quaternary climate and flow-regime changes on the coastal rivers of New South Wales, Australia. In: Gregory KJ, Benito G (eds) Palaeohydrology: understanding global change. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  67. Paduano GM, Bush MB, Baker PA, Fritz SC, Seltzer GO (2003) A vegetation and fire history of Lake Titicaca since the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeogr Palaeolclimatol Palaeoecol 194:259–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peltier WR (1994) Ice age paleotopography. Science 265:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Peltier WR (2004) Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age Earth: the ICE-5G (VM2) model and GRACE. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 32:111–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Peterson JA, Hope GS, Prentice M, Hantoro W (2002) Mountain environments in New Guinea and the late Glacial Maximum warm seas/cold mountains enigma in the West Pacific warm pool region. In: Kershaw AP, Tapper NJ, David B, Bishop PM, Penny D (eds) Bridging Wallace’s line. Advances in geoecology, vol 34. Catena, Reiskirchen, pp 173–187Google Scholar
  71. Pierce JL, Meyer GA, Jull AJT (2004) Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests. Nature 432:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Power MJ, Whitlock C, Bartlein PJ, Stevens LR (2006) Fire and vegetation history during the last 3800 years in northwestern Montana. Geomorphology 75:420–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prentice IC, Jolly D, BIOME 6000 Participants (2000) Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. J Biogeogr 27:507–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prentice IC, Bondeau A, Cramer W, Harrison SP, Hickler T, Lucht W, Smith B, Sykes MT (2007) Dynamic global vegetation modeling: quantifying terrestrial ecosystem responses to large-scale environmental change. In: Canadell JG et al (eds) Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world. Springer, Berlin, pp 175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pyne SJ, Andrews PL, Laven RD (1996) Introduction to wildland fire. Wiley, New York, 769 pGoogle Scholar
  76. Raynaud D, Blunier T, Ono Y, Delmas RJ (2003) The Late Quaternary history of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols: interaction between climate and biogeochemical cycles. In: Alverson KD, Bradley RS, Pedersen TF (eds) Paleoclimate, global change and the future. Springer, Berlin, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  77. Ripley B, Maechler M (2006) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. http://www.R-project.org
  78. Schaefer JM, Denton GH, Barrell DJA, Ivy-Ochs S, Kubik PW, Andersen BG, Phillips FM, Lowell TV, Schlüchter C (2006) Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the Last Glacial Maximum in Mid-Latitudes. Science 312:1510–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schäfer-Neth C, Paul A (2003) The Atlantic Ocean at the last glacial maximum: 1. objective mapping of the GLAMAP sea-surface conditions. In: Wefer G, Mulitza S, Ratmeyer V (eds) The South Atlantic in the Late Quaternary: material budget and current systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 531–548Google Scholar
  80. Seltzer GO (2001) Later Quaternary glaciation in the tropics: future research directions. Quat Sci Rev 20:1063–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith JA, Seltzer GO, Farber DL, Rodbell DT, Finkel RC (2005) Early local Last Glacial Maximum in the tropical Andes. Science 308:678–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thevenon F, Bard E, Williamson D, Beaufort L (2004) A biomass burning record from the West Equatorial Pacific over the last 360 ky: methodological, climatic and anthropic implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 213:83–99Google Scholar
  83. Thevenon F, Williamson D, Vincens A, Taieb M, Merdaci O, Decobert M, Buchet G (2003) A late-Holocene charcoal record from Lake Masoko, SW Tanzania: climatic and anthropologic implications. Holocene 13(5):785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tinner W, Conedera M, Ammann B, Gäggeler HW, Gedye S, Jones R, Sägesser B (1998) Pollen and charcoal in lake sediments compared with historically documented forest fires in southern Switzerland since AD 1920. Holocene 8:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tinner W, Conedera M, Ammann B, Lotter AF (2005) Fire ecology north and south of the Alps since the last ice age. Holocene 15:1214–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tinner W, Hofstetter S, Zeugin F, Conedera M, Wohlgemuth T, Zimmermann L, Zweifel R (2006) Long-distance transport of macroscopic charcoal by an intensive crown fire in the Swiss Alps—implications for fire history reconstruction. Holocene 16:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tinner W, Hubschmid P, Wehrli M, Ammann B, Conedera M (1999) Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland. J Ecol 87:273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Urrego DH, Silman MR, Bush MB (2005) The last glacial maximum: stability and change in an Andean cloud forest. J Quat Sci 20:693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Van Aardenne JA, Dentener FJ, Oliver JGJ, Klein Goldewijk CGM, Lelieveld J (2001) A 1 × 1 resolution data set of historical anthropogenic trace gas emissions for the period 1890–1990. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 15(4):909–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Van der Werf GR, Randerson JT, Collatz GJ, Giglio L, Kasibhatla S, Arellano AF Jr, Olsen SC, Kasischke ES (2004) Continental-scale partitioning of fire emissions during the 1997 to 2001 El Nino/La Nina Period. Science 303:73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S. Springer, New York, 495 pGoogle Scholar
  92. Williams JW, Shuman BN, Webb T III, Bartlein PJ, Leduc PL (2004) Late-Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecol Monogr 74(2):309–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Whitlock C, Bartlein PJ (2004) Holocene fire activity as a record of past environmental change. In: Gillespie AR et al (eds) The Quaternary period in the United States. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 479–490Google Scholar
  94. Whitlock C, Millspaugh SH (1996) Testing the assumptions of fire-history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Holocene 6:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whitlock C, Moreno PI, Bartlein P (2007) Climatic controls of Holocene fire patterns in southern South America. Quat Res 68:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zong Y, Chen Z, Innes JB, Chen C, Wang Z, Wang H (2007) Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China. Nature 449:459–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Power
    • 1
  • J. Marlon
  • N. Ortiz
  • P. J. Bartlein
  • S. P. Harrison
  • F. E. Mayle
  • A. Ballouche
  • R. H. W. Bradshaw
  • C. Carcaillet
  • C. Cordova
  • S. Mooney
  • P. I. Moreno
  • I. C. Prentice
  • K. Thonicke
  • W. Tinner
  • C. Whitlock
  • Y. Zhang
  • Y. Zhao
  • A. A. Ali
  • R. S. Anderson
  • R. Beer
  • H. Behling
  • C. Briles
  • K. J. Brown
  • A. Brunelle
  • M. Bush
  • P. Camill
  • G. Q. Chu
  • J. Clark
  • D. Colombaroli
  • S. Connor
  • A.-L. Daniau
  • M. Daniels
  • J. Dodson
  • E. Doughty
  • M. E. Edwards
  • W. Finsinger
  • D. Foster
  • J. Frechette
  • M.-J. Gaillard
  • D. G. Gavin
  • E. Gobet
  • S. Haberle
  • D. J. Hallett
  • P. Higuera
  • G. Hope
  • S. Horn
  • J. Inoue
  • P. Kaltenrieder
  • L. Kennedy
  • Z. C. Kong
  • C. Larsen
  • C. J. Long
  • J. Lynch
  • E. A. Lynch
  • M. McGlone
  • S. Meeks
  • S. Mensing
  • G. Meyer
  • T. Minckley
  • J. Mohr
  • D. M. Nelson
  • J. New
  • R. Newnham
  • R. Noti
  • W. Oswald
  • J. Pierce
  • P. J. H. Richard
  • C. Rowe
  • M. F. Sanchez Goñi
  • B. N. Shuman
  • H. Takahara
  • J. Toney
  • C. Turney
  • D. H. Urrego-Sanchez
  • C. Umbanhowar
  • M. Vandergoes
  • B. Vanniere
  • E. Vescovi
  • M. Walsh
  • X. Wang
  • N. Williams
  • J. Wilmshurst
  • J. H. Zhang
  1. 1.Institute of Geography, School of GeosciencesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations