Climate Dynamics

, Volume 22, Issue 2–3, pp 157–182 | Cite as

Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback

  • Z. Liu
  • S. P. Harrison
  • J. Kutzbach
  • B. Otto-Bliesner


The response of the six major summer monsoon systems (the North American monsoon, the northern Africa monsoon, the Asia monsoon, the northern Australasian monsoon, the South America monsoon and the southern Africa monsoon) to mid-Holocene orbital forcing has been investigated using a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (FOAM), with the focus on the distinct roles of the direct insolation forcing and oceanic feedback. The simulation result is also found to compare well with the NCAR CSM. The direct effects of the change in insolation produce an enhancement of the Northern Hemisphere monsoons and a reduction of the Southern Hemisphere monsoons. Ocean feedbacks produce a further enhancement of the northern Africa monsoon and the North American monsoon. However, ocean feedbacks appear to weaken the Asia monsoon, although the overall effect (direct insolation forcing plus ocean feedback) remains a strengthened monsoon. The impact of ocean feedbacks on the South American and southern African monsoons is relatively small, and therefore these regions, especially the South America, experienced a reduced monsoon regime compared to present. However, there is a strong ocean feedback on the northern Australian monsoon that negates the direct effects of orbital changes and results in a strengthening of austral summer monsoon precipitation in this region. A new synthesis is made for mid-Holocene paleoenvironmental records and is compared with the model simulations. Overall, model simulations produce changes in regional climates that are generally consistent with paleoenvironmental observations.


  1. Adams DK, Comrie AC (1997) The North American Monsoon. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78: 2197–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker VR, Pickup G (1987) Flood geomorphology of the Katherine Gorge, Northern Territory, Australia. Geol Soc Am Bull 98: 635–646Google Scholar
  3. Baker VR, Pickup G, Pollack HA (1983) Desert paleofloods in central Australia. Nature 301: 502–504Google Scholar
  4. Bell CJE, Finalyson BL, Kershaw AP (1989) Pollen analysis and dynamics of a peat deposit in Carnarvon National Park, central Queensland. Aust J Ecol 14: 449–456Google Scholar
  5. Berger AL (1978) Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes. J Atmos Sci 35: 2362–2367Google Scholar
  6. Berry SL (1991) The potential of fossil mammal middens as indicators of vegetation history in Central Australia. Aust J Bot 39: 305–131Google Scholar
  7. Bonan GB (1998) The land surface climatology of the NCAR Land Surface Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J Clim 11: 1307–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowler JM, Teller JT (1986) Quaternary evaporates and hydrological changes, Lake Tyrell, north-west Victoria. Australian J Earth Sci 33: 43–63Google Scholar
  9. Bowman DMJS, Panton WJ, Head J (1999) Abandoned orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt) nests and coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia. Quat Int 59: 27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braconnot P, Joussaume S, Marti O, de Noblet N (1999) Synergistic feedbacks from ocean and vegetation on the African monsoon response to mid-Holocene insolation. Geophys Res Lett 26: 2481–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braconnot P, Marti O, Joussaume S, Leclainche Y (2000) Ocean feedback in response to 6 ka BP insolation. J Clim 13: 1537–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broström Coe AM, Harrison SP, Gallimore R, Kutzbach JE, Foley J, Prentice IC, Behling P (1998) Land Surface feedbacks and paleomonsoons in Northern Africa. Geophys Res Lett 25: 3615–3618Google Scholar
  13. Boville BA, Gent PR (1998) The NCAR climate system model, version one. J Clim 11: 1115–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang P, Ji L, Li H (1997) A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air-sea interactions. Nature 385: 516–518Google Scholar
  15. Cheddadi R, Yu G, Guiot J, Harrison SP, Prentice IC (1997) The climate of Europe 6000 years ago. Clim Dyn 13: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen XY, Barton CE (1991) Onset of aridity and dune building in central Australia: sedimentological and magnetostratigraphic evidence from Lake Amadeus. Palaeogeog, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 84: 55–73Google Scholar
  17. Chen XY, Bowler JM, Magee JW (1993) Late Cenozoic stratigraphy and hydrologic history of Lake Amadeus, a central Australian Playa. Aust J Earth Sci 40: 1–14Google Scholar
  18. Chen XY, Prescott JR, Hutton JT (1990) Thermoluminescence dating on gypseous dunes of Lake Amadeus, central Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 37: 93–101Google Scholar
  19. Clark RL, Guppy JC (1988) A transition from mangrove forest to freshwater wetland in the monsoon tropics of Australia. J Biogeogr 15: 665–684Google Scholar
  20. Crowley GM, Gagan MK (1995) Holocene evolution of coastal wetlands in wet-tropical northeastern Australia. The Holocene 5: 385–399Google Scholar
  21. Crowley GM, Kershaw AP (1994) Late Quaternary environmental change and human impact around Lake Bolac, western Victoria, Australia. J Quat Sci 9: 367–377Google Scholar
  22. Cupper ML, Drinnan AN, Thomas I (2000) Holocene palaeoenvironmenta of salt lakes in the Darling Anabranch region, south-western New South Wales, Australia. J Biogeotgr 27: 1079–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davidson NE, McBride JL, McAvaney BJ (1983) The onset of the Australian monsoon during winter MONEX: synoptic aspects. Mon Weather Rev 111: 496–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeDeckker P, Corrège T, Head J (1991) Late Pleistocene record of cyclic aeolian activity from tropical Australia suggesting the Younger Dryas is not an unusual climatic event. Geology 19: 602–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doherty R, Kutzbach JE, Foley J, Pollard D (2000) Fully coupled climate/dynamical vegetation model simulations over Northern Africa during the mid-Holocene. Clim Dyn 16: 561–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Douglas MW, Maddox RA, Howard K, Reyes S (1993) The Mexican Monsoon. J Clim 6: 1665–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dulhunty JA (1975) Shoreline shingle terraces and prehistoric fillings of Lake Eyre. Trans R S South Aust 99: 183–188Google Scholar
  28. Enfield DB (1996) Relationships of inter-American rainfall to tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST variability. Geophys Res Lett 23: 3305–3308Google Scholar
  29. English P, Spooner NA, Chappell J, Questiaux DG, Hill NG (2001) Lake Lewis basin, central Australia: environmental evolution and OSL chronology. Quat Int 83–85: 81–101Google Scholar
  30. Ganopolski A, Kubatzki C, Claussen M, Brovkin V, Petoukhov V (1998) The influence of vegetation-atmosphere–ocean interaction on climate during the mid-Holocene. Science 280: 1916–1919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gent P, Bryan F, Danabasoglu G, Doney S, Holland W, Large W, McWilliams J (1998) The NCAR Climate System Model global ocean component. J Clim 11: 1287–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gillespie R, Magee JW, Luly JG, Dlugokencky E, Sparks RJ, Wallace G (1991) AMS radiocarbon dating in the study of arid environments: examples from Lake Eyre, South Australia. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 84: 333–338Google Scholar
  33. Goudie AS, Stokes S, Livingstone I, Bailiff IK, Allison RJ (1993) Post-depositional modification of the linear sand ridges of the West Kimberley area of north-west Australia. The Geogr J 159: 306–317Google Scholar
  34. Grindrod J (1985) The palynology of mangroves on a prograded shore, Princess Charlotte Bay, North Queensland, Australia. J Biogeogr 12: 323–348Google Scholar
  35. Harrison SP, Kutzbach JE, Liu Z, Bartlein PJ, Muhs D, Prentice IC, Thompson RS (2003) Mid-Holocene climates of the Americas: a dynamical response to changed seasonality. Clim Dyn 20: 663–688Google Scholar
  36. Hastenrath S (1978) On modes of tropical circulation and climate anomalies. J Atmos Sci 35: 2222–2231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hastenrath S (1994) Climate dynamics of the tropics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 488Google Scholar
  38. Hewitt CD, Mitchell JFB (1998) A fully-coupled GCM simulation of the climate of the mid-Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 25: 361–364Google Scholar
  39. Higgins RW, Shi W (2000) Dominant factors responsible for interannual variability of the summer monsoon in the Southwestern United States. J Clim 15: 759–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins RW, Yao Y, Wang XL (1997) Influence of the North American monsoon system on the US summer precipitation regime. J Clim 10: 2600–2622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoelzmann P, Jolly D, Harrison SP, Laarif F, Bonnefille R, Pachur HJ (1998) Mid-Holocene land-surface conditions in northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula: a data set for the analysis of biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system. Global Biogeochem Cycles 12: 35–51Google Scholar
  42. Jacob R (1997) Low frequency variability in a simulated atmosphere ocean system. PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin – Madison, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. Jennings JN (1975) Desert dunes and estuarine fill in the Fitzroy Estuary (north-western Australia. Catena 2: 215–262Google Scholar
  44. Johnson BJ, Miller GH, Fogel ML, Magee JW, Gagan MK, Chivas AR (1999) 65,000 years of vegetation change in Central Australia and the Australian summer monsoon. Science 284: 1150–1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jolly D, Harrison SP, Damnati B, Bonnefille R (1998a) Simulated climate and biomes of Africa during the Late Quaternary: comparison with pollen and lake status data. In: Webb T III (ed) Late Quaternary climates: data syntheses and model experiments. Quat Sci Rev 17: 629–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jolly D, Prentice IC, Bonnefille R, Ballouche A, Bengo M, Brenac P, Buchet G, Burney D, Cazet JP, Cheddadi R, Edorh T, Elenga H, Elmoutaki S, Guiot J, Laarif F, Lamb H, Lézine AM, Maley J, Mbenza M, Peyron O, Reille M, Reynaud-Ferrera I, Riollet G, Ritchie JC, Roche E, Scott L, Ssemmanda I, Straka H, Umer M, van Campo E, Vilimumbalo S, Vincens A, Waller M (1998b) Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for Africa and the Arabian peninsula at 0 and 6 ka. J Biogeogr 25: 1007–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joussaume S, Braconnot P (1997) Sensitivity of paleoclimate simulation results to season definition. J Geophys Res 102: 1943–1956Google Scholar
  48. Joussaume S, Taylor KE, Braconnot P, Mitchell JFB, Kutzbach JE, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Broccoli AJ, Abe-Ouchi A, Bartlein PJ, Bonfils C, Dong B, Guiot J, Herterich K, Hewitt CD, Jolly D, Kim JW, Kislov A, Kitoh A, Loutre MF, Masson V, McAvaney B, McFarlane N, de Noblet N, Peltier WR, Peterschmitt JY, Pollard D, Rind D, Royer JF, Schlesinger ME, Syktus J, Thompson S, Valdes P, Vettoretti G, Webb RS, Wyputta U (1999) Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Geophys Res Lett 26: 859–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kershaw AP (1978) Record of last glacial-interglacial cycle from north-eastern Queensland. Nature 329: 413–417Google Scholar
  50. Kiehl JT, Hack JJ, Bonan GB, Boville BA, Williamson DL, Rasch PJ (1998) The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J Clim 11: 1131–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krishnamurthy V, Goswami BN (2000) Indian Monsoon – ENSO relationship on interdecadal time scales. J Clim 13: 579–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar K, Rajagopalan R, Cane M (1999) On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science 284: 2156–2159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kohfeld KE, Harrison SP (2000) How well can we simulate past climates? Evaluating the models using global paleoenvironmental data sets. Quat Sci Rev 19: 321–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kutzbach JE (1981) Monsoon climate of the Early Holocene: climate experiment with the Earth’s orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science 214: 59–61Google Scholar
  55. Kutzbach JE, Otto-Bliesner BI (1982) The sensitivity of the African-Asian monsoonal climate to orbital parameter changes for 9000 yr BP in a low-resolution general circulation model. J Atmos Sci 39: 1177–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kutzbach JE, Guetter P (1986) The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18,000 years. J Atmos Sci 43: 1726–1759Google Scholar
  57. Kutzbach JE, Gallimore RG (1988) Sensitivity of a coupled atmosphere/mixed layer ocean model to changes in orbital forcing at 9000 years BP. J Geophys Res 93: 803–821Google Scholar
  58. Kutzbach J, Liu Z (1997) Oceanic feedback on the western African monsoon at 6000 BP. Science 278: 440–443Google Scholar
  59. Kutzbach JE, Street-Perrott FA (1985) Milankovitch forcing of fluctuations in the level of tropical lakes from 18 to 0 kyr BP. Nature 317: 130–134Google Scholar
  60. Kutzbach JE, Bonan G, Foley J, Harrison SP (1996) Vegetation and soil feedbacks on the response of the African monsoon to orbital forcing in the early to middle Holocene. Nature 384: 623–626Google Scholar
  61. Kutzbach JE, Harrison SP, Coe MT (2001) Land–ocean–atmosphere interactions and monsoon climate change: a paleo-perspective. In: Schulze ED, Heimann M, Harrison SP, Holland E, Lloyd J, Prentice IC, Schimel D (eds) Global biogeochemical cycles in the climate system. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 73–83Google Scholar
  62. Lau KM, Kim KK, Yang S (2000) Dynamical and boundary forcing characteristics of regional components of the Asian Summer Monsoon. J Clim 13: 2461–2482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lees BG (1992) Geomorphological evidence for late Holocene climate change in northern Australia. Aust Geogr 23: 1–11Google Scholar
  64. Lees BG, Lu Yanchow, Price D (1992) Thermoluminescence dating of dunes at Cape St. Lambert, East Kimberleys, northwestern Australia. Mar Geol 106: 131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lees BG, Hayne M, Price D (1993) Marine transgression and dune initiation on western Cape York, northern Australia. Mar Geol 114: 81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu Z, Wu L (2000) Tropical Atlantic variability in a coupled GCM. Atmos Sci Lett 1: 26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Liu Z, Gallimore R, Kutzbach J, Xu W, Golubev W, Behling P, Siegle R (1999a) Modeling long term climate change with the equilibrium asynchronous coupling scheme. Clim Dyn 15: 325–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu Z, Jacobs R, Kutzbach J, Harrison S, Anderson J (1999b) Asian monsoon impact on El Nino in the early Holocene. PAGES Newslett 7: 16–17Google Scholar
  69. Liu Z, Kutzbach J, Wu L (2000) Modeling climate shift of El Nino variability in the Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 27: 2265–2268Google Scholar
  70. Liu Z, Wu W, Gallimore R, Jacob R (2002) Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys Res Lett, 29, 10.1029/2001GL013735Google Scholar
  71. Liu Z, Brady E, Lynch-Steiglitz J (2003a) Global ocean response to orbital forcing in the Holocene. Paleoceanography Art. no. 1041, 18(2): doi:10.1029/2002PA000819Google Scholar
  72. Liu Z, Otto-Bliesner B, Kutzbach J, Li L, Shields C (2003b) Coupled climate simulations of the evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene. J Clim 16: 2472–2490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Luly JG (1993) Holocene palaeoenvironments at Lake Tyrell, semi-arid northwestern Victoria, Australia. J Biogeogn 20: 587–598Google Scholar
  74. Luly JG (2001) On the equivocal fate of Late Pleistocene Callitris Vent. (Cupressaceae) woodlands in arid South Australia. Quat Int 83–85: 155–168Google Scholar
  75. Luly JG, Bowler JM, Head MJ (1986) A radiocarbon chronology from the Playa Lake Tyrrell, northwestern Victoria, Australia. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 54: 171–180Google Scholar
  76. Magee JW (1991) Late Quaternary lacustrine, groundwater, aeolian and pedogenic gypsum in the Prungle Lakes, southwestern New South Wales. Palaeogeogn, Palaeo Climate of Palaeoeodl 84: 3–42Google Scholar
  77. Magee JW, Bowler JM, Miller GH, Williams DLG (1995) Stratigraphy, sedimentology, chronology and palaeohydrology of Quaternary lacustrine deposits at Madigan Gulf, Lake Eyre, South Australia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 113: 3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Markgraf V (1993) Climatic history of central and south America since 18,000 yr BP: comparison of pollen records and model simulation. In: Wright HE et al. (eds) Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, USA, pp 357–385Google Scholar
  79. Markgraf V, Baumgartner TR, Bradbury JP, Diaz HF, Dunbar RB, Luckman BH, Seltzer GO, Swetnam TW, Villalba R (2000) Paleoclimate reconstruction along the Pole-Equator-Pole transect of the Americas (PEP 1). Quat Sci Rev 19: 125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maslin MA, Burns SJ (2000) Reconstruction of the Amazon basin effective moisture available over the past 14,000 years. Science 290: 2285–2287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mayle FE, Burbridge R, Killen TJ (2000) Millennial-scale dynamics of southern Amazonian rain forest. Science 290: 2291–2294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Metcalfe SE, O’Hara SL, Caballero M, Davies SJ (2000) Records of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic change in Mexico – a review. Quat Sci Rev 19: 699–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meehl GA, Arblaster JM (1998) The Asian-Australian monsoon and El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the NCAR Climate System Model. J Clim 11: 1356–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Molnar P (2001) Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates. Geology 29: 1071–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murray A, Wohl E, East J (1992) Thermoluminescence and excess RA-226 dating of late Quaternary fluvial sands, East Alligator River, Australia. Quat Res 37: 29–41Google Scholar
  86. Nanson GC, East TJ, Roberts RG (1993) Quaternary stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Magela Creek catchment in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia. Sediment Geol 83: 277–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nanson GC, Chen XY, Price DM (1995) Aeolian and fluvial evidence of changing climate and wind patterns during the past 100 ka in the western Simpson Desert. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 113: 87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nanson GC, Callen RA, Price DA (1998) Hydroclimatic interpretation of Quaternary shorelines on South Australian playas. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 144: 281–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Newsome JC, Pickett EJ (1993) Palynology and palaeoclimatic implications of two Holocene sequences from southwestern Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 101: 245–261Google Scholar
  90. Nott JF, Price DM (1991) Late Pleistocene to early Holocene aeolian activity in the upper and middle Shoalhaven catchment, New South Wales. Aust Geogr 22: 168–177Google Scholar
  91. Nott JF, Price DM (1994) Plunge pools and palaeoprecipitation. Geology 22: 1047–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nott J, Bryant E, Price D (1999) Early-Holocene aridity in tropical northern Australia. The Holocene 9: 231–236Google Scholar
  93. Otto-Bliesner BL (1999) El Nino/La Nina and Sahel precipitation during the middle Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 26: 87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Otto-Bliesner BL, Brady EC (2001) Tropical Pacific variability in the NCAR Climate System Model. J Clim 14: 3587–3607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pickup G, Allan G, Baker VR (1988) History, palaeochannnels and palaeofloods of the Finke River, central Australia. In: Warner RF (ed) Fluvial geomorphology of Australia. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 177–200Google Scholar
  96. Prentice IC, Webb III T (1998) BIOME 6000: reconstructing global mid-Holocene vegetation patterns from palaeoecological records. J Biogeogr 25: 997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Prentice IC, Guiot J, Huntley B, Jolly D, Cheddadi R (1996) Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Clim Dyn 12: 185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Prentice IC, Jolly D, BIOME 6000 Members (2000) Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. J Biogeogr 27: 507–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ramage CS (1971) Monsoon meteorology. Academic Press, New York, pp 296Google Scholar
  100. Rodwell MJ, Hoskins BJ (2001) Subtropical anticyclones and summer monsoons. J Clim 14: 3192–3211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Russell-Smith J (1985) A record of change: studies of Holocene vegetation history in the South Alligator River region, Northern Territory. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 13: 191–202Google Scholar
  102. Shukla J (1987) Interannual variability of monsoons. In: Fein JS, Stephens PL (eds) Monsons. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 399–464Google Scholar
  103. Shulmeister J (1992) A Holocene pollen record from lowland tropical Australia. The Holocene 2: 107–116Google Scholar
  104. Shulmeister J (1999) Australasian evidence for mid-holocene climate change implies precessional control of Walker Circulation in the Pacific. Quat Int 57/58: 81–91Google Scholar
  105. Shulmeister J, Lees BG (1992) Morphology and chronology of a coastal dunefield, Groote Eylandt, northern Australia. Geomorphology 5: 521–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shulmeister J, Lees BG (1995) Pollen evidence from tropical Australia for the onset of an ENSO-dominated climate at c. 4000 BPGoogle Scholar
  107. Singh G, Luly J (1991) Changes in vegetation and seasonal climate since the last full glacial at Lake Frome, South Australia. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 84: 75–86Google Scholar
  108. Smith MA, Vellen L, Pask J (1995) Vegetation history from archaeological charcoals in central Australia: the Late Quaternary record from Puritjarra rock shelter. Veg Hist Archaeobot 4: 171–177Google Scholar
  109. Stocker GC (1971) The age of charcoal from old jungle fowl nests and vegetation change on Melville Island. Search 2: 28–30Google Scholar
  110. Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA (1993) Holocene vegetation, lake levels and climate of Africa. In: Wright HE et al. (eds) Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, USA pp 318–356Google Scholar
  111. Tang M, Reiter ER (1984) Plateau monsoons of the northern Hemisphere: a comparison between North America and Tibet. Mon Weather Rev 112: 617–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Texier D, de Noblet N, Harrison SP, Haxeltine A, Jolly D, Joussaume S, Laarif F, Prentice IC, Tarasov PE (1997) Quantifying the role of biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks in climate change: coupled model simulation for 6000 years BP and comparison with palaeodata for northern Eurasia and northern Africa. Clim Dyn 13: 865–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thompson RS, Anderson KH (2000) Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000, and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data. J Biogeogr 27: 555–584Google Scholar
  114. Thompson RS, Whitlock C, Bartlein BJ, Harrison SP, Spaulding WG (1993) Climatic changes in the western United States since 18,000 yr B.P. In: Wright HE et al. (eds) Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 468–513Google Scholar
  115. Torrence C, Webster PJ (1999) Interdecadal changes in the ENSO-monsoon system. J Clim 12: 2679–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tucker GE, Slingerland R (1999) Drainage basin responses to climate change. Water Resources Res 33: 2031–2047Google Scholar
  117. Veeh HH, McCorkle DC, Heggie DT (2000) Glacial/interglacial variations of sedimentation on the West Australian continental margin: constraints from excess 230Th. Mar Geol 166: 11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Walker D, Owen JAK (1999) The characteristics and source of laminated mud at Lake Barrine, northeast Australia. Quat Sci Rev 18: 1597–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wasson RJ (1979) Sedimentation history of the Mundi Mundi alluvial fans, western New South Wales. Sediment Geol 22: 21–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Weatherly JW, Briegleb BP, Large WG, Maslanik JA (1998) Sea ice and polar climate in the NCAR CSM. J Clim 11: 1472–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Webb T, Partlein P, Harrison SP, Anderson KH (1993) Vegetation, lake levels, and climate in eastern North America for the past 18,000 years. In: Wright HE et al (eds) Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minneapolis, pp 415–467Google Scholar
  122. Webster PJ, Yang S (1992) Monsoon and ENSO: selectively interactive systems. Q J R Meteorol Soc 118: 877–926Google Scholar
  123. Webster PJ, Magana VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J, Tomas JA, Yanai M, Yasunari T (1998) Monsoons: processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J Geophys Res 103: 14,451–14,510Google Scholar
  124. Wende R, Nanson GC, Price DM (1997) Aeolian and fluvial evidence for Late Quaternary environmental change in the east Kimberley of western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 44: 519–526Google Scholar
  125. Williams M, Prescott JR, Chappell J, Adamson D, Cock B, Walker K, Gell P (2001) The enigma of a late Pleistocene wetland in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Quat Int 83–85: 129–144Google Scholar
  126. Winkler MG, Wang PK (1993) The Late-Quaternary Vegetation and Climate of China. In: Wright HE et al. (eds) Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp 221–264Google Scholar
  127. Wyrwoll K-H, Miller GH (2001) Initiation of the Australian summer monsoon 14,000 years ago. Quat Int 83–85: 119–128Google Scholar
  128. Wyrwoll K-H, Milton D (1976) Widespread Late Quaternary aridity in Western Australia. Nature 264: 429–430Google Scholar
  129. Wyrwoll K-H, McKenzie NL, Pederson BJ, Tapley IJ (1986) The Great Sandy Desert of Northwestern Australia: the last 7000 years. Search 17: 209–211Google Scholar
  130. Wyrwoll K-H, Hopwood J, McKenzie NL (1992) The Holocene paleohydrology and climatic history of the northern Great Sandy Desert – Fitzroy Trough: with special reference to the history of the northwest Australian monsoon. Clim Change 22: 47–65Google Scholar
  131. Yu G, Harrison SP (1995) Lake status records from Europe: data base documentation. NOAA Paleoclimatology Publications Series Rep 3, pp 451Google Scholar
  132. Yu G, Harrison SP, Xue B (2001) Lake status records from China: Data base documentation. Techn Rep – Max-Planck-Institute für Biogeochemie 4Google Scholar
  133. Yu G, Prentice IC, Harrison SP, Sun X (1998) Pollen-based biome reconstructions for China at 0 and 6000 years. J Biogeogr 25: 1055–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yu G, Chen X, Ni J, Cheddadi R, Guiot J, Han H, Harrison SP, Huang C, Ke M, Kong Z, Li S, Li W, Liew PM, Liu G, Liu J, Liu KB, Prentice IC, Ren G, Song C, Sugita S, Sun X, Tang L, Van Campo E, Xia Y, Xu Q, Yan S, Yang X, Zheng Z (2000) Palaeovegetation of China: a pollen data-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum. J Biogeogr 27: 635–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhou J, Lau KM (1998) Does a monsoon climate exist over South America? J Clim 11: 1020–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Liu
    • 1
  • S. P. Harrison
    • 2
  • J. Kutzbach
    • 1
  • B. Otto-Bliesner
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 W. Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena, Germany
  3. 3.National Center for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307, USA

Personalised recommendations