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Management of traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematomas in pediatrics: our experience and review of the literature

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Abstract

Background and aims

Conservative management of posterior fossa epidural hematoma in the pediatric age group has been increasingly considered in the last decade with good clinical outcomes and comparable results to surgical intervention in carefully selected patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of observation in the management of pediatric patients with posterior fossa epidural hematoma (PFEDH) in our tertiary hospital and present a literature review on PFEDH pediatric patients.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective observational study at King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH), a tertiary hospital in North Jordan. All pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) who were admitted with a diagnosis of PFEDH from January 2010 to December 2020 were included. Demographic data, trauma type, clinical signs and symptoms on admission, CT findings, treatment type, and outcomes were collected and assessed. The outcome was measured using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) on discharge from the hospital.

Results

A total of 16 patients were identified and included in this study. Nine patients were managed conservatively and 7 surgically. The mean age was 7.7 ± 6 years ranging from 1 to 18 years. Falls were the most common cause of injury. Vomiting was the most frequent presenting symptom. Except for 1 patient, 14 patients had good outcomes with a GOS of 5. One case of mortality was seen in our series.

Conclusion

Posterior fossa epidural hematoma is a rare clinical condition among the pediatric age group. Early and consecutive CT scans must be obtained for all suspected cases. Successful conservative management can be achieved depending on multiple factors such as hematoma thickness or volume, neurological status on admission, and other radiological findings as shown in our study. The overall prognosis was good in our patients.

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Correspondence to Mohammad A. Jamous.

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Jamous, M.A., Samara, Q.A., Jbarah, O.F. et al. Management of traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematomas in pediatrics: our experience and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 37, 2839–2846 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05248-y

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