The most common primary CNS tumor in children is the medulloblastoma, which generally occurs in the posterior fossa and can spread through the CNS and spinal cord. Although the recurrence of renal cell carcinoma as a secondary tumor to neuroblastoma has been reported with successful anti-neoplastic treatment, the rare occurrence of a child who initially had medulloblastoma and then developed translocation renal cell carcinoma has never been reported before.
We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who initially presented with complaints of vomiting and headache. An MRI head confirmed the presence of 4 × 4 × 3 cm lesion which was resected completely and histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of medulloblastoma Grade IV. Four years later, the child came for a follow-up visit and during routine screening, a CT scan showed heterogeneous lesion arising from the lower pole calyx of right kidney. The patient was referred to pediatric surgery for right radical nephrectomy involving the right adrenal gland. The histopathology report was consistent with the diagnosis of translocation renal cell carcinoma.
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors remain the leading cause of death among pediatric neoplasms. We advise genetic testing of index cases and the establishment of an international tumor registry for a challenging disease.