Endoscopic third ventriculostomy versus shunt for pediatric hydrocephalus: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Background

Optimized management of pediatric hydrocephalus remains the subject of debate. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is largely considered the standard of care. However, the advancements and introduction of new cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion approaches including the use of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) offer appealing alternatives that have been reported in numerous observational series.

Objective

To evaluate the comparative safety and efficacy of shunting and ETV in pediatric hydrocephalus cases.

Methods

This systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed (Medline) and Cochrane until October 2018. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted and the I-square was used to assess heterogeneity. The ROBINS-1 tool and Cochrane tool were used to assess risk of bias in the observational and randomized studies, respectively.

Results

Fourteen studies including 8419 patients were identified. Patients in the ETV group had a statistically significant lower risk of infection compared to shunt (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07–0.53; I2: 0%). All-cause mortality (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.35–1.68; I2: 0%), post-operative CSF leak (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 0.37–6.31; I2: 0%), and reoperation rates were similar between the two study groups (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.39–1.32; I2: 93.5%). Subgroup analyses for re-operation demonstrated that ETV in Africa (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03–0.48; I2: 0%) and Europe (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.30–0.52; I2:1.4%) was associated with significantly lower odds of re-operation compared to shunt, but not in USA/Canada (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.85–2.63; I2:86.2%). Meta-regression analyses of age and duration of follow-up did not affect re-operation rates.

Conclusions

ETV was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of procedure-related infection compared to shunt. All-cause mortality, CSF leak, and re-operation rates were similar between the study groups. Subgroup analysis based on the geographic region showed that ETV is associated with statistically significant lower odds for re-operation in Europe and Africa, but not in USA/Canada. Future RCTs are needed to validate the results of this study and elucidate the cause of this heterogeneity.

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Correspondence to Pavlos Texakalidis.

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Texakalidis, P., Tora, M.S., Wetzel, J.S. et al. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy versus shunt for pediatric hydrocephalus: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Childs Nerv Syst 35, 1283–1293 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-019-04203-2

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Keywords

  • Endoscopic third ventriculostomy
  • Choroid plexus cauterization
  • Shunt
  • Shunting
  • Hydrocephalus