Advertisement

Child's Nervous System

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 37–45 | Cite as

Peripheral nerve injuries in the pediatric population: a review of the literature. Part II: entrapment neuropathies

  • Javier Robla Costales
  • Mariano SocolovskyEmail author
  • Jaime A. Sánchez Lázaro
  • David Robla Costales
Review Paper

Abstract

Introduction

Entrapment neuropathies are infrequent in children, and therefore remain unrecognized. The incidence of radial, median, and cubital mononeuropathies are all similar. Despite the rarity of such cases, extensive, albeit scattered, literature has accumulated concerning entrapment neuropathies in children.

Objective

To the literature concerning entrapment neuropathies in children.

Methods

A systematic review of the existing literature has been made.

Results

The management of chronic pediatric pain is very important in such patients to prevent youths from experiencing prolonged absences from school, sports, or other productive activities, and limit the psychological burden of chronic disease. Nonsurgical treatment of both cubital and carpal tunnel syndromes has been disappointing in pediatric patients, with only limited success; and, to date, there is no clear explanation for the outcome differences generated by nonsurgical management between adults and youths. Simple decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow also has much higher rates of failure in children than in adults.

Conclusions

The presence of an entrapment neuropathy (specially carpal tunnel syndrome) in a pediatric-age patient should alert medical care providers to the potential of some underlying genetic condition or syndrome.

Keywords

Entrapment neuropathies Carpal tunnel Ulnar nerve compression Pediatric population 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Escolar DM (1996) Pediatric radial mononeuropathies: a clinical and electromyographic study of sixteen children with review of the literature. Muscle Nerve 19(7):876–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lagos JC (1971) Compression neuropathy in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 13:531–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sharma R, Ramachandran S, Bhat D, Bindu PS, Devi BI (2013) Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in two children: common manifestation of an uncommon disease. Pediatr Neurosurg 49:300–302.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000365762 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lamberti PM, Light TR (2002) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. Hand Clin 18:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mc Donald CM (2015) Electrodiagnosis in pediatrics. In: Alexander MA, Matthews DJ (eds) Pediatric Rehabilitation. Principles and Practice, 5th edn. Demos Medical Publishing, New York, pp 113–152Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pronicka E, Tylki-Szymanska A, Kwast O et al (1988) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children with mucopolysaccharidoses: needs for surgical tendons and median nerve release. J Ment Defic Res 32(Pt 1):79–82Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fisher RC, Horner RL, Wood VE (1974) The hand in mucopolysaccharide disorders. Clin Orthop 104:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gschwind C, Tonkin MA (1992) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children with mucopolysaccharidosis and related disorders. J Hand Surg 17:44–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Meir N, De Smet L (2005) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. J Pediatr Orthop Part B 14:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    al-Qattan MM, Thomson HG, Clarke HM (1996) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children and adolescents with no history of trauma. J Hand Surg Edinb Scotl 21:108–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bouwman VEW, Knepper AB, de Vries TW (2015) Carpal tunnel syndrome and Down’s syndrome. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 159:A8943Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yuen A, Dowling G, Johnstone B, Kornberg A, Coombs C (2007) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children with mucopolysaccaridoses. J Child Neurol 22:260–263.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073807300528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Potulska-Chromik A, Lipowska M, Gawel M et al (2014) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. J Child Neurol 29:227–231.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073813504458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davis L, Vedanarayanan VV (2014) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. Pediatr Neurol 50:57–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2013.08.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Senger J-L, Classen D, Bruce G, Kanthan R (2014) Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: a cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: a case report and comprehensive literature review. Plast Surg Oakv Ont 22:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leduc A, Perrot P, Truffandier MV, Bellier-Waast F, Duteille F (2014) Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. About 10 clinical cases. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 59:155–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anplas.2013.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Algahtani H, Watson BV, Thomson J, Al-Rabia MW (2014) Idiopathic bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 9-month-old infant presenting as a pseudo-dystonia. Pediatr Neurol 51:147–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.01.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Michaud LJ, Hays RM, Dudgeon BJ, Kropp RJ (1990) Congenital carpal tunnel syndrome: case report of autosomal dominant inheritance and review of the literature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 71:430–432Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Swoboda KJ, Engle EC, Scheindlin B, Anthony DC, Jones HR (1998) Mutilating hand syndrome in an infant with familial carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve 21:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Danta G (1975) Familial carpal tunnel syndrome with onset in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38:350–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deymeer F, Jones HR (1994) Pediatric median mononeuropathies: a clinical and electromyographic study. Muscle Nerve 17:755–762.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880170709 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gibson CT, Manske PR (1987) Carpal tunnel syndrome in the adolescent. J Hand Surg 12:279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Batdorf NJ, Cantwell SR, Moran SL (2015) Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome in children and adolescents. J Hand Surg 40:773–777.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.01.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lettin AW (1965) Carpal tunnel syndrome in childhood: report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg Br 47:556–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hotta T, Kanbara H, Sato S et al (1970) Case of carpal tunnel syndrome due to calcification of the flexor digitorum sublimis II in a child. Seikeigeka Orthop Surg 21:948–950Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bilge T, Yalaman O, Bilge S, Çokneşeli B, Barut Ş (1990) Entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at the level of the ligament of Struthers. Neurosurgery 27:787–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mittal RL, Gupta BR (1978) Median and ulnar-nerve palsy: an unusual presentation of the supracondylar process. Report of a case. J Bone Joint Surg Am 60:557–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakano KK, Lundergran C, Okihiro MM (1977) Anterior interosseous nerve syndromes. Diagnostic methods and alternative treatments. Arch Neurol 34:477–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fearn CB, Goodfellow JW (1965) Anterior interosseous nerve palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Br 47:91–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spinner M, Schreiber SN (1969) Anterior interosseous-nerve paralysis as a complication of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am 51:1584–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hartz CR, Linscheid RL, Gramse RR, Daube JR (1981) The pronator teres syndrome: compressive neuropathy of the median nerve. J Bone Joint Surg Am 63:885–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ouvrier RA, Shield L (1999) Focal lesions of peripheral nerves. In: Ouvrier RA, Mcleod JG, Pollard JD (eds) Peripheral Neuropathy in childhood. MacKeith Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Felice KJ, Royden Jones H (1996) Pediatric ulnar mononeuropathy: report of 21 electromyography-documented cases and review of the literature. J Child Neurol 11:116–120.  https://doi.org/10.1177/088307389601100211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boero S, Sénès FM, Catena N (2009) Pediatric cubital tunnel syndrome by anconeus epitrochlearis: a case report. J Shoulder Elb Surg 18:e21–e23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2008.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stutz CM, Calfee RP, Steffen JA, Goldfarb CA (2012) Surgical and nonsurgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome in pediatric and adolescent patients. J Hand Surg 37:657–662.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Torg JS, Pollack H, Sweterlitsch P (1972) The effect of competitive pitching on the shoulders and elbows of preadolescent baseball players. Pediatrics 49:267–272Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lyman S, Fleisig GS, Waterbor JW et al (2001) Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1803–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Godshall RW, Hansen CA (1971) Traumatic ulnar neuropathy in adolescent baseball pitchers. J Bone Joint Surg Am 53:359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shimizu H, Beppu M, Arai T, Kihara H, Izumiyama K (2011) Ultrasonographic findings in cubital tunnel syndrome caused by a cubitus varus deformity. Hand Surg Int J Devoted Hand Up Limb Surg Relat Res J Asia-Pac Fed Soc Surg Hand 16:233–238.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218810411005473 Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abe M, Ishizu T, Shirai H, Okamoto M, Onomura T (1995) Tardy ulnar nerve palsy caused by cubitus varus deformity. J Hand Surg 20:5–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-5023(05)80047-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ogino T, Minami A, Fukuda K (1986) Tardy ulnar nerve palsy caused by cubitus varus deformity. J Hand Surg Edinb Scotl 11:352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jones HR, Bolton CF, Harper CM (1996) Mononeuropathies. In: Pediatric clinical electromyography. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 171–250Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Uchida Y, Sugioka Y (1991) Peripheral nerve palsy associated with congenital constriction band syndrome. J Hand Surg Edinb Scotl 16:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gessini L, Jandolo B, Pietrangeli A, Occhipinti E (1981) Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow by persistent epitrochleoanconeus muscle. Case report. J Neurosurg 55:830–831.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1981.55.5.0830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lauland T, Fedders O, Sogaard I, Kornun M (1984) Suprascapular nerve compression syndrome. Surg Neurol 22Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Montagna P, Colonna S (1993) Suprascapular neuropathy restricted to the infraspinatus muscle in volleyball players. Acta Neurol Scand 87:248–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jones HR (1986) Compressive neuropathy in childhood: a report of 14 cases. Muscle Nerve 9:720–723.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880090807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feldman GV (1957) Radial nerve palsies in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 32:469–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ross D, Jones R, Fisher J, Konkol RJ (1983) Isolated radial nerve lesion in the newborn. Neurology 33:1354–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weeks PM (1982) Radial, median, and ulnar nerve dysfunction associated with a congenital constricting band of the arm. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Manske PR (1977) Compression of the radial nerve by the triceps muscle: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 59(6):835–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Töllner U, Bechinger D, Pohlandt F (1980) Radial nerve palsy in a premature infant following long-term measurement of blood pressure. J Pediatr 96(5):921–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barrios C, de Pablos J (1991) Surgical management of nerve injuries of the upper extremity in children: a 15-year survey. J Pediatr Orthop 11:641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ford FR (1966) Diseases of the nervous system in infancy, childhood and adolescence, 5th edn. Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tubbs RS, Griessenauer C, Rizk E, Shoja MM, Pehler SF, Wellons JC II, Conklin MJ (2013) Posterior interosseous nerve palsy in a child associated with recurrent dislocation of the head of the radius. J Neurosurg Pediatr 11:389–391.  https://doi.org/10.3171/2013.1.PEDS12411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cağli K, Ozçakar L, Beyazit M, Sirmali M (2006) Thoracic outlet syndrome in an adolescent with bilateral bifid ribs. Clin Anat 19:558–560.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.20280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chavhan GB, Batmanabane V, Muthusami P, Towbin AJ, Borschel GH (2017) MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children. Pediatr Radiol 47:1222–1234.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3854-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yang J, Letts M (1996) Thoracic outlet syndrome in children. J Pediatr Orthop 16:514–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Davis DB, King JC (1938) Cervical rib in early life. Am J Child 56:744–755Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rehemutula A, Zhang L, Chen L, Chen D, Gu Y (2015) Managing pediatric thoracic outlet syndrome. Ital J Pediatr 41:22.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-015-0128-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nagasao T, Morotomi T, Kuriyama M, Kogure T, Kudo H, Hamamoto Y, Tamai M (2017) Thoracic outlet syndrome after the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum: is it a rare complication? J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg 70:1433–1439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2017.05.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vercellio G, Baraldini V, Gatti C, Coletti M, Cipolat L (2003) Thoracic outlet syndrome in paediatrics: clinical presentation, surgical treatment, and outcome in a series of eight children. J Pediatr Surg 38:58–61.  https://doi.org/10.1053/jpsu.2003.50010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Crumrine PK, Koenigsberger MR, Chutorian AM (1975) Footdrop in the neonate with neurologic and electrophysioloic data. J Pediatr 86(5):779–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kreusser KL, Volpe JJ (1984) Peroneal palsy produced by intravenous fluid infiltration in a newborn. Dev Med Child Neurol 26:522–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fischer AQ, Strasburger J (1982) Footdrop in the neonate secondary to use of footboards. J Pediatr 101:1003–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jones HR, Felice KJ, Gross PT (1993) Pediatric peroneal mononeuropathy: a clinical and electromyographic study. Muscle Nerve 16:1167–1173.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880161105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Levin KH, Wilbourn AJ, Jones HR (1991) Childhood peroneal neuropathy from bone tumors. Pediatr Neurol 7:308–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ritter FJ, Seay AR, Lahey ME (1983) Peripheral mononeuropathy complicating anaphylactoid purpura. J Pediatr 103:77–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sheth D, Gutmann L, Blumenthal DT et al (1994) Compressive sciatic neuropathy due to uterine abnormality. Muscle Nerve 17:1486–1488.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880171225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ramos-Fernández JM, Oliete-García FM, Roldán-Aparicio S, Kirchschläger E, Barrio-Nicolás A (1998) Neonatal sciatic palsy: etiology and outcome of 21 cases. Rev Neurol 26:752–755Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Deverell WF, Ferguson JH (1968) An unusual case of sciatic nerve paralysis. JAMA 205:699–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gille M, Delbecq J, Depré A, van den Bergh P (1995) Painful sciatic neuropathy after heroin overdose. J Neurol 242:478–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lester PD, McAlister WH (1970) Congenital iliac anomaly with sciatic palsy. Radiology 96:397–399.  https://doi.org/10.1148/96.2.397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Venna N, Bielawski M, Spatz EM (1991) Sciatic nerve entrapment in a child. Case report. J Neurosurg 75:652–654.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1991.75.4.0652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tejwani SG, Scaduto AA, Bowen RE (2006) Transient meralgia paresthetica after pediatric posterior spine fusion. J Pediatr Orthop 26:530–533.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.bpo.0000217721.95480.9e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sanders AE, Andras LM, Choi PD, Tolo VT, Skaggs DL (2016) Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve palsy after spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Spine 41:E1164–E1167.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Franklin AD, Cierny GB, Luckett TR (2016) Interventional and multimodal pain rehabilitation in a child with meralgia paresthetica. J Clin Anesth 33:456–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Edelson R, Stevens P (1994) Meralgia paresthetica in children. 8027128;76(7):993–9Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Smuts I, Potgieter D, van der Westhuizen FH (2009) Combined tarsal and carpal tunnel syndrome in mucolipidosis type III. A case study and review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1151:77–84.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03451.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Albrektsson B, Rydholm A, Rydholm U (1982) The tarsal tunnel syndrome in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 64:215–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Molloy AP, Lyons R, Bergin D, Kearns SR (2015) Flexor digitorum accessorius causing tarsal tunnel syndrome in a paediatric patient: a case report and review of the literature. Foot Ankle Surg Off J Eur Soc Foot Ankle Surg 21:e48–e50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2015.01.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Edwards WG, Lincoln CR, Bassett FH, Goldner JL (1969) The tarsal tunnel syndrome. Diagnosis and treatment. JAMA 207:716–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sobey JH, Franklin A (2016) Ultrasound-guided tibial nerve block for definitive treatment of tarsal tunnel syndrome in a pediatric patient. Reg Anesth Pain Med 41:415–416.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0000000000000384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chance PF, Alderson MK, Leppig KA, Lensch MW, Matsunami N, Smith B, Swanson PD, Odelberg SJ, Disteche CM, Bird TD (1993) DNA deletion associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Cell 72:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Meier C, Moll C (1982) Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Report of two families and review of the literature. J Neurol 228:73–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ichikawa K, Nezu A (2005) Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies in childhood: report of a case and a brief review. Brain and Development 27:152–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2003.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Earl CJ, Fullerton PM, Wakefield GS, Schutta HS (1964) Hereditary neuropathy, with liability to pressure palsies; a clinical and electrophysiological study of four families. Q J Med 33:481–498Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad de LeónLeónSpain
  2. 2.Peripheral Nerve & Brachial Plexus Surgery Program, Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Buenos Aires School of MedicineBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Department of Plastic SurgeryHospital Universitario Central de AsturiasOviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations