Advertisement

Child's Nervous System

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 503–510 | Cite as

Does shape affect function? Articulatory skills in babbling of infants with deformational plagiocephaly

  • Christian Linz
  • Tilmann SchweitzerEmail author
  • Lisa C. Brenner
  • Felix Kunz
  • Philipp Meyer-Marcotty
  • Kathleen Wermke
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyse pre-speech/early language skills in healthy full-term infants with moderate or severe deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and in infants without any skull asymmetry.

Methods

At 6 and 12 months, 51 children with DP (41 moderate, 10 severe cases) were studied, along with 15 infants serving as control. Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) was objectively determined based on cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) using 3D stereophotogrammetry (3dMDhead System® and Analytics 4.0, Cranioform®). Articulatory skills in babbling were assessed using the articulatory skill (ART-index) and mean syllable number (MSN). At 12 months, standardized parental questionnaires were used to evaluate early language outcomes.

Results

Overall, 3546 vocalizations were studied. Statistical tests did not reveal any significant differences of the ART-index between the three groups (ANOVA, F[2,63] = 0.24, p = 0.24). MSN likewise did not differ between the three shape groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.84). Among the children assigned to the at-risk group for language outcomes at 12 months were seven members of the symmetrical shape group (vs. seven assigned to the normally developing group), nine of the moderate DP group (vs. 27), and one of the severe DP group (vs. six). Fisher’s exact test was used to analyse whether helmet therapy in the moderate DP group affected the results by influencing language outcomes, but did not reveal any significant influence (p = 0.712).

Conclusions

The results of this study do not support arguments suggesting that DP is a cognitive risk condition. The suggestion that a direct neurophysiological relationship exists between a DP condition and a cognitive developmental delay remains controversial.

Keywords

Pre-speech development Language 3D skull imaging Cranial vault asymmetry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is the first part of ongoing longitudinal studies within the research profile of the Craniofacial Center (CFCW) at the University Clinic Würzburg. We are particularly thankful for the support of the heads of the involved departments: Prof. Dr. A. Stellzig-Eisenhauer (Dept. of Orthodontics), Prof. Dr. Dr. A. Kübler (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery), Dr. J. Kraus (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Section of Pediatric Neurosurgery), and Prof. Dr. R.-I. Ernestus (Dept. of Neurosurgery). We are also grateful to Dr. Dr. H. Böhm (member of the CFCW) and Sandra Habel for their assistance in the study. We would also like to thank the infants and their parents for voluntarily taking part in this research.

Funding information

This study has been funded by a research grant from the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF), University Hospital of Würzburg (F-164).

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was approved by the local research ethics committee (143/09). All the parents gave their informed consent to this longitudinal research and to the publication of the results.

Financial disclosure

The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Dehaene-Lambertz G (2017) The human infant brain: a neural architecture able to learn language. Psychon Bull Rev.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1156-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aboud FE, Yousafzai AK (2016) Very early childhood development. In: Black RE, Laxminarayan R, Temmerman M, Walker N (ed). Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: disease control priorities, Third Edition (Volume 2). Washington (DC), The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World BankGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leroy F, Glasel H, Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Thirion B, Mangin J-F, Dehaene-Lambertz G (2011) Early maturation of the linguistic dorsal pathway in human infants. J Neurosci 31:1500–1506.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4141-10.2011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glasel H, Leroy F, Dubois J, Hertz-Pannier L, Mangin JF, Dehaene-Lambertz G (2011) A robust cerebral asymmetry in the infant brain: the rightward superior temporal sulcus. NeuroImage 58:716–723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trauner D, Wulfeck B, Tallal P, Hesselink J (2000) Neurological and MRI profiles of children with developmental language impairment. Dev Med Child Neurol 42:470–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bishop DVM (2013) Cerebral asymmetry and language development: cause, correlate, or consequence? Science 340:1230531.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1230531 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hutchison BL, Hutchison LAD, Thompson JMD, Mitchell EA (2004) Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly in the first two years of life: a prospective cohort study. Pediatrics 114:970–980.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2003-0668-F CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kane AA, Mitchell LE, Craven KP, Marsh JL (1996) Observations on a recent increase in plagiocephaly without synostosis. Pediatrics 97:877–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mawji A, Vollman AR, Fung T, Hatfield J, McNeil DA, Sauvé R (2014) Risk factors for positional plagiocephaly and appropriate time frames for prevention messaging. Paediatr Child Health 19:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Collett BR, Aylward EH, Berg J, Davidoff C, Norden J, Cunningham ML, Speltz ML (2012) Brain volume and shape in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. Childs Nerv Syst 28:1083–1090.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-012-1731-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collett BR, Gray KE, Starr JR, Heike CL, Cunningham ML, Speltz ML (2013) Development at age 36 months in children with deformational plagiocephaly. Pediatrics 131:15.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knight SJ, Anderson VA, Meara JG, Da Costa AC (2013) Early neurodevelopment in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. J Craniofac Surg 24:1225–1228.  https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e318299777e CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hashim PW, Travieso R, Persing JA, Coffman M, Mukerji C, Naples A et al (2014) Brain electrophysiology reveals intact processing of speech sounds in deformational plagiocephaly. Plast Reconstr Surg 133:835–841.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000000219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jenny B, Smoll NR, Rilliet B, Gautschi OP (2014) Management of positional plagiocephaly—helmet or no helmet? Childs Nerv Syst 30:1153–1154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-014-2444-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van Wijk RM, van Vlimmeren LA, Groothuis-Oudshoorn CGM, Van der Ploeg CPB, Ijzerman MJ, Boere-Boonekamp MM (2014) Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 348:g2741.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2741 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kordestani RK, Patel S, Bard DE, Gurwitch R, Panchal J (2006) Neurodevelopmental delays in children with deformational plagiocephaly. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:207–218 discussion 219-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fowler EA, Becker DB, Pilgram TK, Noetzel M, Epstein J, Kane AA (2008) Neurologic findings in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. J Child Neurol 23:742–747.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073808314362 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Speltz ML, Collett BR, Stott-Miller M, Starr JR, Heike C, Wolfram-Aduan AM et al (2010) Case-control study of neurodevelopment in deformational plagiocephaly. Pediatrics 125:42.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-0052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hutchison L (2012) Deformational plagiocephaly is associated with developmental delay in toddlers. J Pediatr 160:527–528.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buder E, Warlaumont A, Oller DK (2013) An acoustic phonetic catalog of prespeech vocalisations from a developmental perspective. In: Peter B, MacLeod AAN (eds) Comprehensive perspectives on speech sound development and disorders: Pathways from linguistic theory to clinical practice. Nova Publishers, New York, pp 103–134Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DePaolis RA, Vihman MM, Nakai S (2013) The influence of babbling patterns on the processing of speech. Infant Behav Dev 36:642–649.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.06.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Warlaumont AS, Finnegan MK (2016) Learning to produce syllabic speech sounds via reward-modulated neural plasticity. PLoS One 11:e0145096.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145096 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grimm H, Doil H (2000) ELFRA: Elternfragebögen für die Früherkennung von Risikokindern; Handanweisung. Hogrefe Verl. für Psychologie, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meyer-Marcotty P, Bohm H, Linz C, Kochel J, Stellzig-Eisenhauer A, Schweitzer T (2014) Three-dimensional analysis of cranial growth from 6 to 12 months of age. Eur J Orthod 36:489–496.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjt010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boersma P, Weenink D (2011) Phonetic Sciences. University of Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quast A, Hesse V, Hain J, Wermke P, Wermke K (2016) Baby babbling at five months linked to sex hormone levels in early infancy. Infant Behav Dev. 44:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2016.04.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mortenson PA, Steinbok P (2006) Quantifying positional plagiocephaly: reliability and validity of anthropometric measurements. J Craniofac Surg 17:413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGillion M, Herbert JS, Pine J, Vihman M, dePaolis R, Keren-Portnoy T, Matthews D (2017) What paves the way to conventional language? The predictive value of babble, pointing, and socioeconomic status. Child Dev 88:156–166.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12671 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holowka S, Petitto LA (2002) Left hemisphere cerebral specialization for babies while babbling. Science 297:1515.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1074941 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wermke K, Mende W, Manfredi C, Bruscaglioni P (2002) Developmental aspects of infant’s cry melody and formants. Med Eng Phys 24:501–514.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4533(02)00061-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Forest MG, Sizonenko PC, Cathiard AM, Bertrand J (1974) Hypophyso-gonadal function in humans during the first year of life. 1. Evidence for testicular activity in early infancy. J Clin Invest 53:819–828.  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI107621 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Linz
    • 1
  • Tilmann Schweitzer
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lisa C. Brenner
    • 3
  • Felix Kunz
    • 4
  • Philipp Meyer-Marcotty
    • 4
    • 5
  • Kathleen Wermke
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic SurgeryUniversity Hospital WürzburgWurzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, Section of Pediatric NeurosurgeryUniversity Hospital WürzburgWurzburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Orthodontics, Center for Prespeech Development & Developmental DisordersUniversity Hospital WürzburgWurzburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity Hospital of WürzburgWurzburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity Medical CenterGoettingenGermany

Personalised recommendations