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Ocean—atmosphere Teleconnections Play a Key Role in the Interannual Variability of Seasonal Gross Primary Production in China

Abstract

Since the 1950s, the terrestrial carbon uptake has been characterized by interannual variations, which are mainly determined by interannual variations in gross primary production (GPP). Using an ensemble of seven-member TRENDY (Trends in Net Land—Atmosphere Carbon Exchanges) simulations during 1951–2010, the relationships of the interannual variability of seasonal GPP in China with the sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulations were investigated. The GPP signals that mostly relate to the climate forcing in terms of Residual Principal Component analysis (hereafter, R-PC) were identified by separating out the significant impact from the linear trend and the GPP memory. Results showed that the seasonal GPP over China associated with the first R-PC1 (the second R-PC2) during spring to autumn show a monopole (dipole or tripole) spatial structure, with a clear seasonal evolution for their maximum centers from springtime to summertime. The dominant two GPP R-PC are significantly related to Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean during spring to autumn, implying influences from the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The identified SST and circulation factors explain 13%, 23% and 19% of the total variance for seasonal GPP in spring, summer and autumn, respectively. A clearer understanding of the relationships of China’s GPP with ocean—atmosphere teleconnections over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean should provide scientific support for achieving carbon neutrality targets.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42141017), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2020YFA0608904) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41975112, 42175142, 42175013, and 41630532).

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Correspondence to Jing Peng.

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Article Highlights

• At regional scales, the interannual variability of seasonal GPP in the Chinese mainland is closely related to ocean-atmosphere teleconnections over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.

• From spring to autumn, there are considerable seasonal differences in GPP—teleconnection relationships, corresponding to local hydrothermal conditions.

• Ocean—atmosphere teleconnections mostly affect the GPP over eastern China (> 30% explained variance), which dominates the interannual GPP variability for China as a whole.

This paper is a contribution to the special issue on Carbon Neutrality: Important Roles of Renewable Energies, Carbon Sinks, NETs and non-CO2 GHGs.

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Ocean-atmosphere Teleconnections Play a Key Role in the Interannual Variability of Seasonal Gross Primary Production in China

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Ying, K., Peng, J., Dan, L. et al. Ocean—atmosphere Teleconnections Play a Key Role in the Interannual Variability of Seasonal Gross Primary Production in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-021-1226-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-021-1226-4

Key words

  • interannual variation
  • seasonal gross primary production
  • ENSO
  • PDO
  • AO