This study examined the characteristics of the diurnal variations of heavy rainfall (⩾110 mm in 12 hours) in Korea and the related atmospheric circulation for July from 1980–2020. During the analysis period, two dominant pattens of diurnal variation of the heavy rainfall emerged: all-day heavy rainfall (AD) and morning only heavy rainfall (MO) types. For the AD-type, the heavy rainfall is caused by abundant moisture content in conjunction with active convection in the morning (0000–1200, LST; LST = UTC + 9) and the afternoon hours (1200–2400 LST). These systems are related to the enhanced moisture inflow and upward motion induced by the strengthening of the western North Pacific subtropical high and upper-tropospheric jet. For the MO-type, heavy rainfall occurs mostly in the morning hours; the associated atmospheric patterns are similar to the climatology. We find that the atmospheric pattern related to severe heavy rainfalls in 2020 corresponds to a typical AD-type and resembles the 1991 heavy-rainfall system in its overall synoptic/mesoscale circulations. The present results imply that extremely heavy rainfall episodes in Korea during the 2020 summer may occur again in the future associated with the recurring atmospheric phenomenon related to the heavy rainfall.
本研究考察了韩国 1980-2020 年 7 月强降水 (12 小时雨量3 110 毫米) 日变化及其对应的大气环流特征. 在分析时段内存在两种主要的日变化类型: 全天强降水 (AD) 型和早晨强降水 (MO) 型. 对于 AD 型, 强降水由丰沛的水汽含量结合早晨 (当地时 0000-1200) 和午后 (当地时1200-2400) 活跃的对流造成. 这些系统与西北太平洋副热带高压和对流层高空急流加强引起的水汽入流和上升运动增强有关. 对于 MO 型, 强降水主要出现在早晨; 对应的大气环流与气候态相似. 我们发现, 2020 年超强降水相关的环流型对应典型的 AD 型; 在天气尺度/中尺度环流上, 与 1991 年强降水系统相类似. 目前的结果表明, 伴随着重复出现的与强降水相关的大气环流形势, 2020 年夏季韩国的极端强降水事件可能在将来再次出现.
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This work was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program (Chang-Hoi HO and Minhee CHANG: KMI2020-00610), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (Kyung-Ja HA: 2020R1A2C2006860, Chang-Kyun PARK: 2021R1C1C2004711), and Development and Assessment of AR6 Climate Change Scenarios (Jinwon KIM: KMA2018-00321).
• Summertime heavy rainfall features in Korea are represented by two specific forms, morning only (MO) and all-day (AD) types.
• The atmospheric pattern of AD type was characterized by enhanced moisture inflow and upward motion, while that of MO type was similar to the climatology.
• Severe heavy rainfall in 2020 could be considered as a typical AD type and resembles the heavy rainfall case in 1991.
This paper is a contribution to the special issue on Summer 2020: Record Rainfall in Asia—Mechanisms, Predictability and Impacts.
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Park, CK., Chang, M., Ho, CH. et al. Two Types of Diurnal Variations in Heavy Rainfall during July over Korea. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 38, 2201–2211 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-021-1178-8
- heavy rainfall
- diurnal cycle of rainfall
- 2020 summer
- summer rainy season
- 2020 夏季