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Estimate of Hydrofluorocarbon Emissions for 2012–16 in the Yangtze River Delta, China

An Erratum to this article was published on 25 June 2020

This article has been updated


Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been widely used in China as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances, the production and use of which are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. China is a major consumer of HFCs around the world, with its HFC emissions in CO2-equivalent contributing to about 18% of the global emissions for the period 2012–16. Three methods are widely used to estimate the emissions of HFCs—namely, the bottom-up method, top-down method and tracer ratio method. In this study, the tracer ratio method was adopted to estimate HFC emissions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), using CO as a tracer. The YRD region might make a significant contribution to Chinese totals owing to its rapid economic growth. Weekly flask measurements for ten HFCs (HFC-23, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-143a, HFC-152a, HFC-227ea, HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc) were conducted at Lin’an Regional Background Station in the YRD over the period 2012–16, and the HFC emissions were 2.4±1.4 Gg yr−1 for HFC-23, 2.8±1.2 Gg yr−1 for HFC-32, 2.2±1.2 Gg yr−1 for HFC-125, 4.8±4.8 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a, 0.9±0.6 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a, 0.3±0.3 Gg yr−1 for HFC-227ea and 0.3±0.2 Gg yr−1 for HFC-245fa. The YRD total HFC emissions reached 53 Tg CO2-e yr−1, contributing 34% of the national total. The per capita HFC CO2-equivalent emissions rate was 240 Tg yr−1, while the values of per unit area emissions and per million GDP emissions reached 150 Mg km−2 yr−1 and 3500 kg yr−1 (million CNY GDP)−1, which were much higher than national or global levels.


根据《蒙特利尔议定书》, 消耗臭氧层物质(ODSs)的生产和使用正逐步淘汰, 因此氢氟碳化物(HFCs)作为其替代品在中国得到了广泛应用. 中国是全世界HFCs的消费大国, 2012–2016年中国HFCs的CO2当量排放约占全球总排放量的18%. HFCs排放量的估算方法主要有三种, 即自下而上法、自上而下法和示踪物比值法. 本研究采用示踪物比值法, 选取CO作为示踪物, 估算长江三角洲地区(长三角)HFCs的排放量. 由于长三角经济增长快速, 该地区很可能对中国的HFCs排放量贡献较大. 2012–2016年期间, 在位于长三角的临安区域大气本底站对10种HFCs (HFC-23、HFC-32、HFC-125、HFC-134a、HFC-143a、HFC-152a、HFC-227ea、HFC-236fa、HFC-245fa和HFC-365mfc)进行了每周瓶采样观测, 估算得到长三角HFC-23、HFC-32、HFC-125、HFC-134a、HFC-152a、HFC-227ea、HFC-245fa的排放量分别为2.4±1.4 Gg yr−1、2.8±1.2 Gg yr−1、2.2±1.2 Gg yr−1、4.8±4.8 Gg yr−1、0.9±0.6 Gg yr−1、0.3±0.3 Gg yr−1和0.3±0.2 Gg yr−1. 长三角总HFCs当量排放达到53 TgCO2-e yr−1, 占全国总量的34%, 人均CO2当量排放为240 Tg yr−1, 单位面积当量排放和百万GDP当量排放分别达到150 Mg km−2 yr−1和3500 kg yr−1(百万元人民币GDP)−1, 远高于全国和全球水平.

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  • 25 June 2020

    In the original version of this article, the unit of the YRD total HFC emissions “Gg CO<Subscript>2</Subscript> -e yr<Superscript>−1</Superscript>” in the abstract should be Tg CO<Subscript>2</Subscript> -e yr<Superscript>−1</Superscript>.

    On Page 581, in the fifth line from the left bottom, the unit of the total CO<Subscript>2</Subscript>-equivalent emissions of HFCs “Gg yr<Superscript>−1</Superscript>” should be Tg yr<Superscript>−1</Superscript>.


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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41575114 and 41730103), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. LY19D050002) and the Meteorological Science and Technology Program of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2019ZD12). We thank the station personnel who have supported canister sampling at XGL. We also thank the AGAGE network for its technical assistance and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for help with the technique transfer, processing software and calibration standards.

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Correspondence to Bo Yao.

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Article Highlights

• Emissions of seven HFCs from 2012 to 2016 were estimated in the YRD region of China using the tracer ratio method.

• HFC-23 emissions contributed to approximately two thirds of total CO-equivalent HFC emissions in the YRD.

• The total HFC CO-equivalent emissions of the YRD contributed around one third of the national total.

• The emissions intensity of HFCs in the YRD was higher than both national and global levels, in terms of per capita/unit area:unit GDP measurement.

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Pu, J., Xu, H., Yao, B. et al. Estimate of Hydrofluorocarbon Emissions for 2012–16 in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 37, 576–585 (2020).

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Key words

  • hydrofluorocarbons
  • emissions
  • Yangtze River Delta
  • tracer ratio method


  • HFCs
  • 排放
  • 长江三角洲
  • 示踪物比值法