With economic development and rapid urbanization, increases in Gross Domestic Product and population in fast-growing cities since the turn of the 21st Century have led to increases in energy consumption. Anthropogenic heat flux released to the near-surface atmosphere has led to changes in urban thermal environments and severe extreme temperature events. To investigate the effects of energy consumption on urban extreme temperature events, including extreme heat and cold events, a dynamic representation scheme of anthropogenic heat release (AHR) was implemented in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and AHR data were developed based on energy consumption and population density in a case study of Beijing, China. Two simulations during 1999–2017 were then conducted using the developed WRF model with 3-km resolution with and without the AHR scheme. It was shown that the mean temperature increased with the increase in AHR, and more frequent extreme heat events were produced, with an annual increase of 0.02–0.19 days, as well as less frequent extreme cold events, with an annual decrease of 0.26–0.56 days, based on seven extreme temperature indices in the city center. AHR increased the sensible heat flux and led to surface energy budget changes, strengthening the dynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer that reduce AHR heating efficiency more in summer than in winter. In addition, it was concluded that suitable energy management might help to mitigate the impact of extreme temperature events in different seasons.
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This work was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA23090102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41830967), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-DQC012), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFC1506602 and 2020YFA0608203). We also thank the National Meteorological Information Center, China Meteorological Administration, for data support.
• A dynamic representation scheme of AHR was implemented in the WRF model.
• AHR datasets were developed based on local energy consumption and population density via a case study in the city of Beijing, China.
• With the heating effect in the near-surface atmosphere, AHR from energy consumption is expected to increase the frequency of extreme heat events and decrease that of extreme cold events.
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Liu, B., Xie, Z., Qin, P. et al. Increases in Anthropogenic Heat Release from Energy Consumption Lead to More Frequent Extreme Heat Events in Urban Cities. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 38, 430–445 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-020-0139-y
- anthropogenic heat release
- extreme temperature event
- Weather Research and Forecasting model