Surface solar radiation (SSR) can affect climate, the hydrological cycle, plant photosynthesis, and solar power. The values of solar radiation at the surface reflect the influence of human activity on radiative climate and environmental effects, so it is a key parameter in the evaluation of climate change and air pollution due to anthropogenic disturbances. This study presents the characteristics of the SSR variation in Nanjing, China, from March 2016 to June 2017, using a combined set of pyranometer and pyrheliometer observations. The SSR seasonal variation and statistical properties are investigated and characterized under different air pollution levels and visibilities. We discuss seasonal variations in visibility, air quality index (AQI), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and their correlations with SSR. The scattering of solar radiation by particulate matter varies significantly with particle size. Compared with the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5–10), we found that the PM2.5 dominates the variation of scattered radiation due to the differences of single-scattering albedo and phase function. Because of the correlation between PM2.5 and SSR, it is an effective and direct method to estimate PM2.5 by the value of SSR, or vice versa to obtain the SSR by the value of PM2.5. Under clear-sky conditions (clearness index ➞0.5), the visibility is negatively correlated with the diffuse fraction, AQI, PM10, and PM2.5, and their correlation coefficients are −0.50, −0.60, −0.76, and −0.92, respectively. The results indicate the linkage between scattered radiation and air quality through the value of visibility.
地表太阳辐射(SSR)可以影响气候, 水循环, 植物光合作用和太阳能. 地表太阳辐射的值反映了人类活动对辐射的气候和环境效应的影响, 是评价气候变化和空气污染的关键参数. 本研究利用2016年3月至2017年6月在中国南京地区的辐射计观测数据, 分析了SSR的变化特征. 同时, 本文还分析了不同空气污染等级和不同能见度下SSR的季节变化和统计特征. 此外, 我们讨论了能见度, 空气质量指数(AQI), 颗粒物(PM10和PM2.5)的季节变化及其与SSR之间的关系. 颗粒物对地表太阳辐射的散射能力与颗粒物的粒径大小有关. 与空气动力学直径在2.5µm至10µm间的颗粒物相比, 由于单次散射反照率和相函数的差异, PM2.5对太阳辐射的散射更强. 基于PM2.5与SSR之间较好的相关性, 用SSR 的值来估计PM2.5, 或者用PM2.5的值来估计SSR, 都是直接有效的方法. 在晴空条件下(晴空指数≥0.5), 能见度与散射分数, AQI, PM10和PM2.5都呈负相关关系, 它们的相关系数分别为-0.50, -0.60, -0.76和-0.92. 这一结果表明, 散射辐射与空气质量之间的关系可以通过能见度的值相联系. 所以, 我们可以通过在SBDART模式中输入能见度的值来模拟晴空天气下不同污染等级所对应的SSR.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Bendix, J., 1995: A case study on the determination of fog optical depth and liquid water path using AVHRR data and relations to fog liquid water content and horizontal visibility. Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 515–530, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169508954416.
Cai, Z. Y., Y. F. Zheng, J. J. Liu, Y. Lü, and R. J. Wu, 2009: Analysis of solar radiation and relative factors in Yangtze River Delta of China. Scientia Meteorologica Sinica, 29, 447–453, https://doi.org/10.3969/jissn.1009-0827.2009.04.003. (in Chinese)
Cao, C., X. Lee, S. D. Liu, N. Schultz, W. Xiao, M. Zhang, and L. Zhao, 2016: Urban heat islands in China enhanced by haze pollution. Nature Communications, 7, 12509, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12509.
Cess, R. D., and Coauthors, 1995: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observations versus models. Science, 267, 496–499, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.267.5197.496.
Che, H. Z., G. Y. Shi, X. Y. Zhang, R. Arimoto, J. Q. Zhao, L. Xu, B. Wang, Z. H. Chen, 2005: Analysis of 40 years of solar radiation data from China, 1961–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022322.
Dayan, U., B. Ziv, T. Shoob, and Y. Enzel, 2008: Suspended dust over southwestern Mediterranean and its relation to atmospheric circulations. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 915–924, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1587.
Ellis, H. T., and R. F. Pueschel, 1971: Solar radiation: Absence of air pollution trends at Mauna Loa. Science, 172, 845–846, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.172.3985.845.
Haverkort, A. J., D. Uenk, H. Veroude, and M. Van De Waart, 1991: Relationships between ground cover, intercepted solar radiation, leaf area index and infrared reflectance of potato crops. Potato Research, 34, 113–121, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02358105.
Hayasaka, T., 2016: The long-term variation in surface shortwave irradiance in China and Japan: A review. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 94, 393–414, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2016-024.
Haywood, J., and O. Boucher, 2000: Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review. Rev. Geophys., 38, 513–543, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999RG000078.
Hess, M., P. Koepke, and I. Schult, 1998: Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 831–844, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0831:OPOAAC>2.0.CO;2.
Horvath, H., and K. E. Noll, 1969: The relationship between atmospheric light scattering coefficient and visibility. Atmos. Environ., 3, 543–550, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(69)90044-4.
Hu, B., and Coauthors, 2017: Quantification of the impact of aerosol on broadband solar radiation in North China. Scientific Reports, 7, 44851, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44851.
Jandaghian, Z., and H. Akbar, 2017: The effects of aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions on air quality over North America during heatwave period. Preprints, 6th International Conf. on Climate Change Adaptation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Kaiser, D. P., and Y. Qian, 2002: Decreasing trends in sunshine duration over China for 1954–1998: Indication of increased haze pollution? Geophys Res. Lett., 29, 2042, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016057.
Kundu, S. S., A. Borgohain, N. Barman, M. Devi, and P. L. N. Raju, 2018: Spatial variability and radiative impact of aerosol along the Brahmaputra River Valley in India: Results from a campaign. Journal of Environmental Protection, 9, 405–430, https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2018.94026.
Kuye, A., and S. S. Jagtap, 1992: Analysis of solar radiation data for Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Solar Energy, 49, 139–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(92)90148-4.
Lelieveld, J., and Coauthors, 2002: Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science, 298, 794, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075457.
Li, D. H. W., C. C. S. Lau, and J. C. Lam, 2004: Overcast sky conditions and luminance distribution in Hong Kong. Building and Environment, 39, 101–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2003.06.001.
Liepert, B. G., 2002: Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1421, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL014910.
Liu, B. Y. H., and R. C. Jordan, 1960: The interrelationship and characteristic distribution of direct, diffuse and total solar radiation. Solar Energy, 4, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(60)90062-1.
Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter, 2005: Global indirect aerosol effects: A review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5, 715–737, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-715-2005.
Obregón, M. A., A. Serrano, M. J. Costa, and A. M. Silva, 2015: Validation of libRadtran and SBDART models under different aerosol conditions. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 28, 012010, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/28/1/012010.
Okogbue, E. C., J. A. Adedokun, and B. Holmgren, 2009: Hourly and daily clearness index and diffuse fraction at a tropical station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 1035–1047, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1849.
Park, R. J., D. J. Jacob, N. Kumar, and R. M. Yantosca, 2006: Regional visibility statistics in the United States: Natural and transboundary pollution influences, and implications for the Regional Haze Rule. Atmos. Environ., 40, 5405–5423, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.04.059.
Pinker, R. T., B. Zhang, and E. G. Dutton, 2005: Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation? Science, 308, 850–854, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103159.
Power, H. C., 2003: Trends in solar radiation over Germany and an assessment of the role of aerosols and sunshine duration. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 76, 47–63, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-003-0005-8.
Qian, Y., and F. Giorgi, 2000: Regional climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols? The case of southwestern China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3521–3524, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL011942.
Qian, Y., F. Giorgi, Y. Huang, W. Chameides, and C. Luo, 2001: Regional simulation of anthropogenic sulfur over East Asia and its sensitivity to model parameters. Tellus, 53, 171–191, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v53i2.16573.
Qian, Y., D. P. Kaiser, L. R. Leung, and M. Xu, 2006: More frequent cloud-free sky and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024586.
Qian, Y., W. G. Wang, L. R. Leung, and D. P. Kaiser, 2007: Variability of solar radiation under cloud-free skies in China: The role of aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028800.
Qu, Y. W., Y. Han, Y. H. Wu, P. Gao, and T. J. Wang, 2017: Study of PBLH and its correlation with particulate matter from one-year observation over Nanjing, southeast China. Remote Sensing, 9, 668, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9070668.
Qu, Y. W., and Coauthors, 2018: Influence of atmospheric particulate matter on ozone in Nanjing, China: Observational study and mechanistic analysis. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1381–1395, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-018-8027-4.
Ramanathan, V., and A. M. Vogelmann, 1997: Greenhouse effect, atmospheric solar absorption and the earth’s radiation budget: From the Arrhenius-Langley Era to the 1990s. Ambio, 26, 38–46.
Ricchiazzi, P., S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, 1998: SBDART: A research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 2101–2114, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2101:SARATS>2.0.CO;2.
Rodhe, H., and J. Grandell, 1972: On the removal time of aerosol particles from the atmosphere by precipitation scavenging. Tellus, 24, 442–454, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v24i5.10658.
Sengupta, M., and Coauthors, 2015: Best practices handbook for the collection and use of solar resource data for solar energy applications. NREL/TP-5D00-63112, 236 pp.
Shen, Y. B., Z. C. Zhao, and G. Y. Shi, 2008: The progress in variation of surface solar radiation, factors and probable climatic effects. Advances in Earth Science, 23, 915–923, https://doi.org/10.11867/jissn.1001-8166.2008.09.0915. (in Chinese)
Sheng, P. X., J. T. Mao, J. G. Li, Z. M. Ge, A. C. Zhang, J. G. Sang, N. X. Pan, H. S. Zhang, 2003: Atmospheric Physics. Peiking University Press, 531 pp. (in Chinese)
Tselioudis, G., and W. B. Rossow, 1994: Global, multiyear variations of optical thickness with temperature in low and cirrus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2211–2214, https://doi.org/10.1029/94GL02004.
Varotsos, C. A., G. J. Chronopoulos, S. Katsikis, and N. K. Sakellariou, 1995: Further evidence of the role of air pollution on solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground. Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 1883–1886, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169508954525.
Vautard, R., P. Yiou, and G. J. van Oldenborgh, 2009: Decline of fog, mist and haze in Europe over the past 30 years. Nature Geoscience, 2, 115–119, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo414.
Wang, H., F. B. Sun, and W. B. Liu, 2018a: Spatial and temporal patterns as well as major influencing factors of global and diffuse Horizontal Irradiance over China: 1960–2014. Solar Energy, 159, 601–615, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.11.038.
Wang, H. L., B. Zhu, H. Q. Kang, L. J. Shen, and C. Pan, 2011: Seasonal variations of PM10 and PM2.1 in different functional areas in Nanjing. Journal of the Meteorological Sciences, 31, 16–23, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-0827.2011.z1.003. (in Chinese)
Wang, J. Z., and Coauthors, 2018b: Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change. Science of the Total Environment, 630, 46–52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.236.
Wang, L. D., D. R. Lü, and Q. He, 2015: The impact of surface properties on downward surface shortwave radiation over the Tibetan Plateau. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32, 759–771, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-014-4131-2.
Wang, N., Z. H. Ling, X. J. Deng, T. Deng, X. P. Lyu, T. Y. Li, X. R. Gao, and X. Chen, 2018c: Source contributions to PM2.5 under unfavorable weather conditions in Guangzhou City, China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1145–1159, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-018-7212-9.
Wang, T. J., and Coauthors, 2012: Urban air quality and regional haze weather forecast for Yangtze River Delta region. Atmos. Environ., 58, 70–83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.014.
Wild, M., and Coauthors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at earth’s surface. Science, 308, 847–850, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103215.
Wu, J., C. B. Fu, L. Y. Zhang, and J. P. Tang, 2012: Trends of visibility on sunny days in China in the recent 50 years. Atmos. Environ., 55, 339–346, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.037.
Yang, J., Q. L. Min, W. T. Lu, Y. Ma, W. Yao, and T. S. Lu, 2017: An RGB channel operation for removal of the difference of atmospheric scattering and its application on total sky cloud detection. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10, 1191–1201, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-1191-2017.
Yang, S., G. Y. Shi, B. Wang, H. L. Yang, and Y. X. Duan, 2013: Trends in Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and the Effect of Clouds on SSR during 1961–2009 in China. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 37, 963–970, https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2013.11122. (in Chinese)
Zerefos, C. S., K. Eleftheratos, C. Meleti, S. Kazadzis, A. Romanou, C. Ichoku, G. Tselioudis, and A. Bais, 2009: Solar dimming and brightening over Thessaloniki, Greece, and Beijing, China. Tellus, 61, 657–665, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00425.x.
Zhang, Y. L., B. Q. Qin, and W. M. Chen, 2004: Analysis of 40 year records of solar radiation data in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou in Eastern China. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 78, 217–227, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-003-0030-7.
Zheng, R., S. Z. Kang, L. Tong, and S. E. Li, 2012: Water consumption of wine grape under different weather conditions in desert oasis. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 28, 99–107. (in Chinese)
Zhu, B., H. L. Wang, L. J. Shen, H. Q. Kang, and X. N. Yu, 2013: Aerosol spectra and new particle formation observed in various seasons in Nanjing. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1632–1644, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-013-2202-4.
This work was jointly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41775026, 41075012, 40805006, 91544230, 41822504, 41575133, and 41675030), the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2016YFC0203303), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant Nos. BE2015151 and BK20160041). In addition, the authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which greatly helped to improve the quality of this article.
• The seasonal and diurnal variation characteristics of SSR in Nanjing, China, are analyzed with observations at three sites.
• The relationship between the air pollution levels and SSR is examined.
• Compared with PM10, PM2.5 dominates the variation of scattered radiation.
• The SBDART model generally simulates the SSR well under clear skies.
About this article
Cite this article
Luo, H., Han, Y., Lu, C. et al. Characteristics of Surface Solar Radiation under Different Air Pollution Conditions over Nanjing, China: Observation and Simulation. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1047–1059 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-019-9010-4
- surface solar radiation
- air pollution
- particulate matter
- radiative transfer