Characteristics of Surface Solar Radiation under Different Air Pollution Conditions over Nanjing, China: Observation and Simulation
Surface solar radiation (SSR) can affect climate, the hydrological cycle, plant photosynthesis, and solar power. The values of solar radiation at the surface reflect the influence of human activity on radiative climate and environmental effects, so it is a key parameter in the evaluation of climate change and air pollution due to anthropogenic disturbances. This study presents the characteristics of the SSR variation in Nanjing, China, from March 2016 to June 2017, using a combined set of pyranometer and pyrheliometer observations. The SSR seasonal variation and statistical properties are investigated and characterized under different air pollution levels and visibilities. We discuss seasonal variations in visibility, air quality index (AQI), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and their correlations with SSR. The scattering of solar radiation by particulate matter varies significantly with particle size. Compared with the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5–10), we found that the PM2.5 dominates the variation of scattered radiation due to the differences of single-scattering albedo and phase function. Because of the correlation between PM2.5 and SSR, it is an effective and direct method to estimate PM2.5 by the value of SSR, or vice versa to obtain the SSR by the value of PM2.5. Under clear-sky conditions (clearness index ➞0.5), the visibility is negatively correlated with the diffuse fraction, AQI, PM10, and PM2.5, and their correlation coefficients are −0.50, −0.60, −0.76, and −0.92, respectively. The results indicate the linkage between scattered radiation and air quality through the value of visibility.
Key wordssurface solar radiation air pollution particulate matter visibility radiative transfer
地表太阳辐射(SSR)可以影响气候, 水循环, 植物光合作用和太阳能. 地表太阳辐射的值反映了人类活动对辐射的气候和环境效应的影响, 是评价气候变化和空气污染的关键参数. 本研究利用2016年3月至2017年6月在中国南京地区的辐射计观测数据, 分析了SSR的变化特征. 同时, 本文还分析了不同空气污染等级和不同能见度下SSR的季节变化和统计特征. 此外, 我们讨论了能见度, 空气质量指数(AQI), 颗粒物(PM10和PM2.5)的季节变化及其与SSR之间的关系. 颗粒物对地表太阳辐射的散射能力与颗粒物的粒径大小有关. 与空气动力学直径在2.5µm至10µm间的颗粒物相比, 由于单次散射反照率和相函数的差异, PM2.5对太阳辐射的散射更强. 基于PM2.5与SSR之间较好的相关性, 用SSR 的值来估计PM2.5, 或者用PM2.5的值来估计SSR, 都是直接有效的方法. 在晴空条件下(晴空指数≥0.5), 能见度与散射分数, AQI, PM10和PM2.5都呈负相关关系, 它们的相关系数分别为-0.50, -0.60, -0.76和-0.92. 这一结果表明, 散射辐射与空气质量之间的关系可以通过能见度的值相联系. 所以, 我们可以通过在SBDART模式中输入能见度的值来模拟晴空天气下不同污染等级所对应的SSR.
关键词地表太阳辐射 空气污染 颗粒物 能见度 辐射传输
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This work was jointly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41775026, 41075012, 40805006, 91544230, 41822504, 41575133, and 41675030), the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2016YFC0203303), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant Nos. BE2015151 and BK20160041). In addition, the authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which greatly helped to improve the quality of this article.
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