We use theWind Farm Parameterization (WFP) scheme coupled with theWeather Research and Forecasting model under multiple resolution regimes to simulate turbulent wake dynamics generated by a real onshore wind farm and their influence at the local meteorological scale. The model outputs are compared with earlier modeling and observation studies. It is found that higher vertical and horizontal resolutions have great impacts on the simulated wake flow dynamics. The corresponding wind speed deficit and turbulent kinetic energy results match well with previous studies. In addition, the effect of horizontal resolution on near-surface meteorology is significantly higher than that of vertical resolution. The wake flow field extends from the start of the wind farm to downstream within 10 km, where the wind speed deficit may exceed 4%. For a height of 150 m or at a distance of about 25 km downstream, the wind speed deficit is around 2%. This indicates that, at a distance of more than 25 km downstream, the impact of the wind turbines can be ignored. Analysis of near-surface meteorology indicates a night and early morning warming near the surface, and increase in near-surface water vapor mixing ratio with decreasing surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. During daytime, a slight cooling near the surface and decrease in the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio with increasing surface sensible and latent heat fluxes is noticed over the wind farm area.
利用耦合了风电场拖曳参数化(WFP)方案的WRF模式, 探究不同水平与垂直分辨率下模式对昌邑风电场湍流尾流动力过程的模拟表现, 以及对局地天气尺度系统的影响. 结果表明: 空间分辨率对尾流模拟效果影响较大, 其中水平分辨率对近地面气象要素的影响显著高于垂直分辨率, 高分辨率模拟得到的风速损耗和湍流动能与前人研究更为吻合; 沿风传播方向, 距风机组不同距离风速损耗不同, 其中10 km内尾流造成的总损耗可超过4%, 25km内总损耗降至2%, 说明风机尾流效应的影响范围在25km以内; 70 m风机的尾流影响高度在150m以下; 尾流动力过程导致夜晚至次日凌晨近地面气温升高, 地表感热通量和潜热通量减小, 水汽混合比增加; 白天, 随着地表感热通量和潜热通量的增大, 近地面温度略微下降, 水汽混合比减小.
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We are grateful to Dr. Xia XIAO, Dr. Jing ZHAO, Mr. Katchele F. OGOU, and all the members of our research group who are not listed as coauthors, for their helpful contributions. We thank the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0604501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41475013) for the funding support. R. J MANGARA expresses his appreciation to the CAS-TWAS President’s Fellowship and UCAS for their international PhD student sponsorship.
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Mangara, R.J., Guo, Z. & Li, S. Performance of the Wind Farm Parameterization Scheme Coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model under Multiple Resolution Regimes for Simulating an Onshore Wind Farm. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 36, 119–132 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-018-8028-3
- wind farm impact
- Wind Farm Parameterization scheme
- wake flow dynamics