Abkar, M., and F. Porté-Agel, 2015: A new wind-farm parameterization for large-scale Atmospheric models. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 7, 013121, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4907600.
Adams, A. S., and D. W. Keith, 2007: Wind energy and climate: Modeling the atmospheric impacts of wind energy turbines. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, American Geophysical Union, B44B-08.
Aitken, M. L., B. Kosovic, J. D. Mirocha, and J. K. Lundquist, 2014: Large eddy simulation of wind turbine wake dynamics in the stable boundary layer using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6, 033137, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4885111.
Baidya Roy, S., 2011: Simulating impacts of wind farms on local hydrometeorology. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 99, 491–498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2010.12.013.
Baidya Roy, S., and J. J. Traiteur, 2010: Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(42), 17 899–17 904, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas. 1000493107.
Baidya Roy, S., S. W. Pacala, and R. L. Walko, 2004: Can large wind farms affect local meteorology? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19101, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004763.
Banks, R. F., J. Tiana-Alsina, J. M. Baldasano, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Papayannis, S. Solomos, and C. G. Tzanis, 2016: Sensitivity of boundary-layer variables to PBL schemes in the WRF model based on surface meteorological observations, lidar, and radiosondes during the HygrA-CD campaign. Atmos. Res., 176–177, 185–201, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres. 2016.02.024.
Blahak, U., B. Goretzki, and J. Meis, 2010: A simple parameterization of drag forces induced by large wind farms for numerical weather prediction models. Proc. European Wind Energy Conf. and Exhibition, PO ID 445, Warsaw, Poland, EWEC, 186–189.
Bowden, J. H., T. L. Otte, C. G. Nolte, and M. J. Otte, 2012: Examining interior grid nudging techniques using two-way nesting in the WRF model for regional climate modeling. J. Climate, 25, 2805–2823, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00167.1.
Calaf, M., M. B. Parlange, and C. Meneveau, 2011: Large eddy simulation study of scalar transport in fully developed windturbine array boundary layers. Physics of Fluids, 23, 126603, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3663376.
Cervarich, M. C., S. Baidya Roy, and L. M. Zhou, 2013: Spatiotemporal structure of wind farm-atmospheric boundary layer interactions. Energy Procedia, 40, 530–536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.061.
Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land surfacehydrology model with the Penn state-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part II: Preliminary model validation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569–585, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493 (2001)129<0587:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2.
Christiansen, M. B., and C. B. Hasager, 2005: Wake effects of large offshore wind farms identified from satellite SAR. Remote Sensing of Environment, 98, 251–268, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.07.009.
Churchfield, M., S. Lee, P. Moriarty, L. Martinez, S. Leonardi, G. Vijayakumar, and J. Brasseur, 2012: A Large-eddy simulation of wind-plant aerodynamics. 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Nashville, Tennessee, AIAA.
de Andrade Campos, D., S. C. Chou, C. Spyrou, J. C. S. Chagas, and M. J. Bottino, 2017: Eta model simulations using two radiation schemes in clear-sky conditions. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 130, 39–48, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-017-0500-6.
Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46(20), 3077–3107, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<3077: NSOCOD>2.0.CO;2.
Ek, M. B., K. E. Mitchell, Y. Lin, E. Rogers, P. Grunmann, V. Koren, G. Gayno, and J. D. Tarpley, 2003: Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D22), 8851, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003296.
Eriksson, O., J. Lindvall, S. P. Breton, and S. Ivanell, 2015: Wake downstream of the Lillgrund wind farm-A Comparison between LES using the actuator disc method and a wind farm parametrization in WRF. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 625, 012028, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/625/1/012028.
Fitch, A. C., J. K. Lundquist, and J. B. Olson, 2013a: Mesoscale influences of wind farms throughout a diurnal cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 2173–2198, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-12-00185.1.
Fitch, A. C., J. B. Olson, and J. K. Lundquist, 2013b: Parameterization of wind farms in climate models. J. Climate, 26, 6439–6458, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00376.1.
Fitch, A. C., J. B. Olson, J. K. Lundquist, J. Dudhia, A. K. Gupta, J. Michalakes, and I. Barstad, 2012: Local and mesoscale impacts of wind farms as parameterized in a mesoscale NWP model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3017–3038, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00352.1.
Gao, M., J. C. Ning, and X. Q. Wu, 2015: Normal and extreme wind conditions for power at coastal locations in China. PLoS One, 10(8), e013876, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0136876.
Global Wind Energy Council, 2018: Global wind statistics 2017. Global Wind Energy Council Rep., 4 pp.
Grell, G. A., and D. Dévényi, 2002: A generalized approach to parametrizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 1693, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015311.
Gutierrez, W., G. Araya, S. Basu, A. Ruiz-Columbie, and L. Castillo, 2014: Toward understanding low level jet climatology over west Texas and its impact on wind energy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 524, 012008, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/524/1/012008.
Hainbucher, D., W. Hao, T. Pohlmann, J. Sündermann, and S. Z. Feng, 2004: Variability of the Bohai Sea circulation based on model calculations. J. Mar. Syst., 44, 153–174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.09.008.
Iacono, M. J., J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, M.W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, and W. D. Collins, 2008: Radiative forcing by longlived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009944.
IEA, 2011: Technological roadmap: China wind energy roadmap development 2050. OECD/IEA/ERI Rep., 56 pp.
IEA, 2013: Technology roadmap: Wind energy. OECD/IEA, Rep., 63 pp.
Ivanova, L. A., and E. D. Nadyozhina, 2000: Numerical simulation of wind farm influence on wind flow. Wind Engineering, 24, 257–269, https://doi.org/10.1260/0309524001495620.
Jacobson, M. Z., and C. L. Archer, 2012: Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 15679–15 684, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas. 1208993109.
Jiménez, A., A. Crespo, E. Migoya, and J. Garcia, 2007: Advances in large-eddy simulation of a wind turbine wake. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 75, 012041, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/75/1/012041.
Jiménez, P. A., J. Navarro, A. M. Palomares, and J. Dudhia, 2015: Mesoscale modeling of offshore wind turbine wakes at the wind farm resolving scale: A composite-based analysis with theWeather Research and Forecasting Model over Horns Rev. Wind Energy, 18, 559–566, https://doi.org/10.1002/we.1708.
Kirk-Davidoff, D. B., and D. W. Keith, 2008: On the climate impact of surface roughness anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2215–2234, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2509.1.
Lee, J. C. Y., and J. K. Lundquist, 2017: Evaluation of the wind farm parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.8.1) with meteorological and turbine power data. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 4229–4244, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4229-2017.
Li, D. L., H. Von Storch, B. S. Yin, Z. H. Xu, J. F. Qi, W. Wei, and D. L. Guo, 2018: Low-level jets over the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea: Climatology, variability, and the relationship with regional atmospheric circulations. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 5240–5260, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD027949.
Liu, P., A. P. Tsimpidi, Y. Hu, B. Stone, A. G. Russell, and A. Nenes, 2012: Differences between downscaling with spectral and grid nudging using WRF. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12(8), 3601–3610, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-3601-2012.
Lu, H., and F. Porté-Agel, 2011: Large-eddy simulation of a very large wind farm in a stable atmospheric boundary layer. Physics of Fluids, 23, 065101, https://doi.org/1063/1.3589857.
Ma, Y. Y., Y. Yang, X. P. Mai, C. J. Qiu, X. Long, and C. H. Wang, 2016: Comparison of analysis and spectral nudging techniques for dynamical downscaling with the WRF model over China. Advances in Meteorology, 2016, 4761513, https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4761513.
Manwell, J. F., J. G. McGowan, and A. L. Rogers, 2002: Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. Willey, 46–47.
Mirocha, J. D., B. Kosovic, M. L. Aitken, and J. K. Lundquist, 2014: Implementation of a generalized actuator disk wind turbine model into the weather research and forecasting model for large-eddy simulation applications. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6, 013104, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4861061.
Nakanishi, M., and H. Niino, 2009: Development of an improved turbulence closure model for the atmospheric boundary layer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87(5), 895–912, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.87.895.
Porté-Agel, F., Y. T. Wu, H. Lu, and R. J. Conzemius, 2011: Largeeddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow through wind turbines and wind farms. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 99, 154–168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2011.01.011.
Rajewski, D. A., E. S. Takle, J. K. Lundquist, J. H. Prueger, R. L. Pfeiffer, J. L. Hatfield, K. K. Spoth, and R. K. Doorenbos, 2014: Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 194, 175–187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.03.023.
Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN 475+STR, https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH.
Smith, R. B., 2009: Gravity wave effects on wind farm efficiency. Wind Energ, 13, 449–458, https://doi.org/10.1002/we.366.
Telford, P. J., P. Braesicke, O. Morgenstern, and J. A. Pyle, 2008: Technical Note: Description and assessment of a nudged version of the new dynamics Unified Model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1701–1712, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1701-2008.
Thompson, G., and T. Eidhammer, 2014: A study of aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation development in a large winter cyclone. J. Atmos. Sci., 71(10), 3636–3658, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0305.1.
Uhe, P., and M. Thatcher, 2015: A spectral nudging method for the ACCESS1.3 atmospheric model. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 1645–1658, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-1645-2015.
Vanderwende, B. J., B. Kosovic, J. K. Lundquist, and J. D. Mirocha, 2016: Simulating effects of a wind-turbine array using LES and RANS. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1376–1390, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016 MS000652.
Volker, P. J. H., J. Badger, A. N. Hahmann, and S. Ott, 2015: The explicit wake parametrisation V1.0: A wind farm parametrisation in the mesoscale model WRF. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 3715–3731, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-3715-2015.
Von Storch, H., H. Langenberg, and F. Feser, 2000: A spectral nudging technique for dynamical downscaling purposes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128(10), 3664–3673, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3664:ASNTFD>2.0.CO;2.
Wang, C., and R. G. Prinn, 2010: Potential climatic impacts and reliability of very large-scale wind farms. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2053–2061, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2053-2010.
Wang, C., and R. G. Prinn, 2011: Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 025101, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/025101.
Wang, Q., X. Y. Guo, and H. Takeoka, 2008: Seasonal variations of the Yellow River plume in the Bohai Sea: A model study. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08046, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007 JC004555.
Wu, Y. T., and F. Porté-Agel, 2013: Simulation of turbulent flow inside and above wind farms: Model validation and layout effects. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 146, 181–205, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-012-9757-y.
Zhou, L. M., Y. H. Tian, S. Baidya Roy, C. Thorncroft, F. L. Bosart, and Y. L. Hu, 2012: Impacts of wind farms on land surface temperature. Nat. Clim. Change, 2(7), 539–543, https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE1505.