This paper focuses on the relationship between the phase transition of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and decadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the twentieth century. The first transition occurred in the 1940s, with an enhanced SST in the North Pacific and reduced SST in the tropical eastern Pacific and South Indian Ocean. In agreement with these SST changes, a higher SLP was found in most parts of the Pacific, while a lower SLP was found in the North Pacific and most parts of the Indian Ocean. In this case, the EASM was largely enhanced with a southerly anomaly in the lower troposphere along the east coast of China. Correspondingly, there was less rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and more rainfall in northern and southern China. An opposite change was found when the PDO reversed its phase in the late 1970s. In the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific, however, the SST was enhanced in both the 1940s and 1970s. As a result, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) tended to extend westward with a larger magnitude in the 1970s. The major features were reasonably reproduced by an atmospheric general circulation model (IAP AGCM4.0) prescribed with observed SST and sea ice. On the other hand, the westward extension of the WPSH was exaggerated in the 1970s, while it was underestimated in the 1940s. Besides, the spatial pattern of the simulated summer rainfall in eastern China tended to shift southward compared with the observation.
Allan, R., and T. Ansell, 2006: A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 1850–2004. J. Climate, 19, 5816–5842.
Chen, H., and F. Xue, 2013: Numerical simulation of decadal variations in the East Asian summer monsoon and summer rainfall in eastern China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1143–1153. (in Chinese)
Compo, G. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The twentieth century reanalysis project. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137(654), 1–28.
Deser, C., A. S. Phillips, and J. W. Hurrell, 2004: Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and the north Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate, 17, 3109–3124.
Dong, L., and T. J. Zhou, 2014: The Indian Ocean sea surface temperature warming simulated by CMIP5 models during the Twentieth century: Competing forcing roles of GHGs and anthropogenic aerosols. J. Climate, 27, 3348–3362.
Gong, D. Y., and C. H. Ho, 2002: Shift in the summer rainfall over the Yangtze River valley in the late 1970s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 78-1–78-4, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014523.
Lapp, S. L., J. M. St. Jacques, E. M. Barrow, and D. J. Sauchyn, 2012: GCM projections for the Pacific decadal oscillation under greenhouse forcing for the early 21st century. Inter. J. Climatol., 32, 1423–1442.
Li, H. M., A. G. Dai, T. J. Zhou, and J. Lu, 2010: Responses of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950–2000. Climate Dyn., 34, 501–514.
Mantua, N. J., and S. R. Hare, 2002: The Pacific decadal oscillation. Journal of Oceanography, 58, 35–44.
Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 1069–1079.
Mitchell, T. D., and P. D. Jones, 2005: An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Inter. J. Climatol., 25, 693–712.
Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 2283–2296.
Su, T. H., and F. Xue, 2010: The intraseasonal variation of summer monsoon circulation and rainfall in East Asia. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 611–628. (in Chinese)
Su, T. H., F. Xue, and H. Zhang, 2014: Simulating the intraseasonal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon by IAP AGCM4.0. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 31, 570–580, doi: 10.1007/ s00376-013-3029-8.
Wang, H. J.}, 2001: The weakening of the Asian monsoon circulation after the end of 1970’s. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 376–386, doi: 10.1007/BF02919316.
Wen, X. Y., S. W. Wang, J. H. Zhu, and D. Viner, 2006: An overview of China climate change over the 20th century using UK UEA/CRU high resolution grid data. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30(5), 894–904, doi: 10.3878/jissn.1006-9895.2006.05. 18. (in Chinese)
Xue, F., 2001: Interannual to Interdecadal variation of East Asian summer monsoon and its association with the global atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 567–575, doi: 10.1007/s00376-001-0045-x.
Xue, Y., T. M. Smith, and R. W. Reynolds, 2003: Interdecadal changes of 30-yr SST normals during 1871–2000. J. Climate, 16, 1601–1612.
Yang, X. Q., Q. Xie, Y. M. Zhu, X. G. Sun, and Y. J. Guo, 2005: Decadal-to-interdecadal variability of precipitation in north China and associated atmospheric and oceanic anomaly patterns. Chinese J. Geophys., 48, 789–797. (in Chinese)
Yu, L., 2013: Potential correlation between the decadal East Asian summer monsoon variability and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 6, 394–397.
Yu, L., T. Furevik, O. H. Otterå, and Y. Q. Gao, 2015: Modulation of the Pacific decadal oscillation on the summer precipitation over East China: A comparison of observations to 600-yrs control run of Bergen Climate Model. Climate Dyn., 44, 475–494.
Zhang, H., Z. H. Lin, and Q. C. Zeng, 2009: The computational scheme and the test for dynamical framework of IAP AGCM-4. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1267–1285. (in Chinese)
Zhou, T. J., D. Y. Gong, J. Li, and B. Li, 2009a: Detecting and understanding the multi-decadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon-recent progress and state of affairs. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 18, 455–467.
Zhou, T. J., and Coauthors, 2009b: Why the western Pacific subtropical high has extended westward since the late 1970s. J. Climate, 22, 2199–2215.
Zhu, Y. M., and X. Q. Yang, 2003: Relationships between Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and climate variabilities in China. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 61, 641–654. (in Chinese)
About this article
Cite this article
Dong, X., Xue, F. Phase transition of the Pacific decadal oscillation and decadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon in the 20th century. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 33, 330–338 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-5130-7
- Pacific decadal oscillation
- East Asian summer monsoon
- western Pacific subtropical high
- IAP AGCM4.0