Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 140–148 | Cite as

Climate change in the subtropical jetstream during 1950–2009

Article

Abstract

A study of six decades (1950–2009) of reanalysis data reveals that the subtropical jetstream (STJ) of the Southern (Northern) Hemisphere between longitudes 0°E and 180°E has weakened (strengthened) during both the boreal winter (January, February) and summer (July, August) seasons. The temperature of the upper troposphere of the midlatitudes has a warming trend in the Southern Hemisphere and a cooling trend in the Northern Hemisphere. Correspondingly, the north-south temperature gradient in the upper troposphere has a decreasing trend in the Southern Hemisphere and an increasing trend in the Northern Hemisphere, which affects the strength of the STJ through the thermal wind relation. We devised a method of isotach analysis in intervals of 0.1 m s−1 in vertical sections of hemispheric mean winds to study the climate change in the STJ core wind speed, and also core height and latitude. We found that the upper tropospheric cooling of the Asian mid-latitudes has a role in the strengthening of the STJ over Asia, while throughout the rest of the globe the upper troposphere has a warming trend that weakens the STJ. Available studies show that the mid-latitude cooling of the upper troposphere over Asia is caused by anthropogenic aerosols (particularly sulphate aerosols) and the warming over the rest of the global mid-latitude upper troposphere is due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Key words

subtropical jetstream upper troposphere greenhouse gases aerosols 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abish, B., P. V. Joseph, and O. M. Johannessen, 2013: Weakening trend of the tropical easterly jetstream of the boreal summer monsoon season 1950–2009. J. Climate, 26, 9408–9414, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00440.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, C. L., and K. Caldeira, 2008: Historical trends in the jet streams. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08803, doi: 10.1029/2008GL033614.Google Scholar
  3. Bengtsson, L., S. Hagemann, and K. L. Hodges, 2004: Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11111, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes: Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Oxford University Press, New York, 594 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bromwich, D. H., and R. L. Fogt, 2004: Strong trends in the skill of the ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses in the high and middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, 1958–2001. J. Climate, 17, 4603–4619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dima, I. M., and J. M. Wallace, 2003: On the seasonality of the Hadley Cell. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 1522–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duan, A. M., 2007: Cooling trend in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15708, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durre, I., R. S. Vose, and D. B. Wuertz, 2006: Overview of the integrated global radiosonde archive. J. Climate, 19, 53–68, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3594.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fu, Q., C. M. Johanson, J. M. Wallace, and T. Reichler, 2006: Enhanced mid-latitude tropospheric warming in satellite measurements. Science, 312, 1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galvin, 2007: The weather and climate of the tropics. Weather, 62, 295–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu, Y., and Q. Fu, 2007: Observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation since 1979. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5229–5236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hudson, R. D., 2012: Measurements of the movement of the jet streams at mid-latitudes, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, 1979 to 2010. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7797–7808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaiser, D. P., and Y. Qian, 2002: Decreasing trends in sunshine duration over China for 1954–1998: Indication of increased haze pollution? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002gl016057.Google Scholar
  14. Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROMand documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krishnamurti, T. N., 1961: The subtropical jetstream of winter. J. Meteor., 18, 172–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liebmann, B., and C. A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1275–1277.Google Scholar
  18. Liu, J., M. Song, Y. Hu, and X. Ren, 2012: Changes in the strength and width of the Hadley Circulation since 1871. Climate Past, 8, 1169–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lu, J., G. A. Vecchi, and T. Reichler, 2007: Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06805, doi: 10.1029/2006GL028443.Google Scholar
  20. Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, and G. Chen 2011: A Model Investigation of Aerosol-induced Changes in Boreal Winter Extratropical Circulation, J. Clim., doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4111.1.Google Scholar
  21. Mitas, C. M., and A. Clement, 2005: Has the Hadley cell been strengthening in recent decades? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03809, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell, J. F. B., T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory, and S. F. B. Tett, 1995: Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nature, 376, 501–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, New York, 520 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Santer, B. D., and Coauthors, 1999: Uncertainties in observationally based estimates of temperature change in the free atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6305–6333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schulman, L. L., 1973: On the summer hemisphere Hadley cell. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seidel, D. J., Q. Fu, W. J. Randel, and T. J. Reichler, 2008: Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience, 1, 21–24.Google Scholar
  27. Simmons, A. J., and Coauthors, 2004: Comparison of trends and low-frequency variability in CRU, ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR analyses of surface air temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24115, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strong, C., and R. E. Davis, 2008: Variability in the position and strength of winter jet stream cores related to northern Hemisphere teleconnections. J. Climate, 21, 584–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sun, J., 2014: Record-breaking SST over mid-North Atlantic and extreme high temperature over the Jianghuai-Jiangnan region of China in 2013. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 3465–3470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thorne, P.W., D. E. Parker, S. F. B. Tett, P. D. Jones, M. McCarthy, H. Coleman, and P. Brohan, 2005: Revisiting radiosonde upper air temperatures from 1958 to 2002. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18105, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961–3012, doi: 10.1256/qj.04.176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Webster, P. J., 2004: The elementary Hadley circulation. The Hadley Circulation: Past, Present and Future. H. Diaz, and R. Bradley, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 9–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Abish
    • 1
  • P. V. Joseph
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ola. M. Johannessen
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Nansen Environmental Research Centre IndiaKochiIndia
  2. 2.Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing CenterBergenNorway
  3. 3.Nansen Scientific SocietyBergenNorway
  4. 4.Department of Atmospheric SciencesCochin University of Science and TechnologyKochiIndia

Personalised recommendations