Sea ice is an important component in the Earth’s climate system. Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice, its internal processes, interaction with other components, and projection of future changes. This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2), in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5), with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation. Through analysis, we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability. Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured. The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations, although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations. Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter-summer changes. Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3.
Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future: (1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole; (2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as, among others, the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land, and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bitz, C. M., and W. H. Lipscomb, 1999: An energy-conserving thermodynamic model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C7), 15669–15677, doi: 10.1029/1999JC900100.
Canuto, V. M., A. Howard, Y. Cheng, and M. S. Dubovikov, 2001: Ocean turbulence. Part I: Onepoint closure model-Momentum and heat vertical diffusivities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1413–1426.
Canuto, V. M., A. Howard, Y. Cheng, and M. S. Dubovikov, 2002: Ocean turbulence. Part II: Vertical diffusivities of momentum, heat, salt, mass, and passive scalars. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 240–264.
Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson, 2008: Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979-2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07004, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004564.
Comiso, J., 1999: updated 2008, Bootstrap sea ice concentrations from 627 NIMBUS-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I, 1979–2007. Tech. Rep., National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, USA, Digital media.
Dukowicz, J. K. and J. R. Baumgardner, 2000: Incremental remapping as a transport advection algorithm. Journal of Computational Physics, 160, 318–335.
Durner, G. M., and Coauthors, 2009: Predicting 21stcentury polar bear habitat distribution from 647 global climate models. Ecological Monographs, 79, 25–58, doi: 10.1890/07-2089.1.
Fahrbach, E., 2006: Arctic-subarctic ocean flux array for European climate: North. Tech. Rep., Alfred Wegener Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung, 63pp. [Available online at http://www.awi651bremerhaven.de/Research/IntCoop/Oce/ASOF/index.htm.]
Harms, S., E. Fahrbach, and V. H. Strass, 2001: Sea ice transport in the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 106(C5), 9057–9073.
Hunke, E. C., and J. K. Dukowicz, 1997: An elasticviscous-plastic model for sea ice dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27(9), 1849–1867.
Ingvaldsen, R. B., L. Asplin, and H. Loeng, 2004: The seasonal cycle in the Atlantic transport to the Barents Sea during the years 1997–2001. Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 1015–1032, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.011.
Kwok, R., and G. F. Cunningham, 2008: ICESat over Arctic sea ice: Estimation of snow depth and ice thickness. J. Geophys. Res., 113, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004753.
Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi, 2009: Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003–2008. J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi: 10.1029/2009JC005312.
Li, L., and Coauthors, 2013a: The flexible global oceanatmosphere-land system model, Grid-point version 2: FGOALS-g2. Adv. Atmos. Sci., doi: 10.1007/s00376-012-2140-6.
Li, L., and Coauthors, 2013b: Development and evaluation of grid-point atmospheric model of IAP LASG, version 2.0 (GAMIL 2.0). Adv. Atmos. Sci., doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-2157-5.
Lin, P., H. L. Liu, and X. Zhang, 2007: Sensitivity of the upper ocean temperature and circulation in the equatorial pacific to solar radiation penetration due to phytoplankton. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 24, 765–780, doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0765-7.
Liu, J., 2010: Sensitivity of sea ice and ocean simulations to sea ice salinity in a coupled global climate model. Science China (D), 53(6), 911–916.
Liu, J., J. A. Curry, and D. G. Martinson, 2004: Interpretation of recent Antarctic sea ice variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018732.
Loeng, H., V. Ozhigin, and B. Adlandsvik, 1997: Water fluxes through the Barents Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 310–317.
Münchow, A., and H. Melling, 2008: Ocean current observations from Nares Strait to the west of greenland: Interannual to tidal variability and forcing. Journal of Marine Research, 66, 801–833.
Oleson, K. W., and Coauthors, 2010: Technical description of version 4.0 of the community land model (CLM), NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-478+STR, 1–257.
Prinsenberg, S., J. Hamilton, I. Peterson, and R. Pettipas, 2009: Observing and interpreting the seasonal variability of the oceanographic fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions. J. C. J. Nihoul and A. G. Kostianoy, Eds., NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Springer Netherlands, 125–143.
Rothrock, D. A., Y. Yu, and G. A. Maykut, 1999: Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(23), 3469–3472.
Schauer, U., A. Beszczynska-Möller, W. Walczowski, E. Fahrbach, J. Piechura, and E. Hansen, 2008: Variation of measured heat flow through the Fram Strait between 1997 and 2006. Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes, R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, Eds., Springer, Netherlands, 65–85.
Simonsen, K., and P. M. Haugan, 1996: Heat budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas. J. Geophys. Res., 101(3), 6553–6576, doi: 10.1029/95JC03305.
Smedsrud, L. H., R. Ingvaldsen, J. E. Ø. Nilsen, and Ø. Skagseth, 2010: Heat in the Barents Sea: transport, storage, and surface fluxes. Ocean Science, 6, 219–234, doi: 10.5194/os-6-219-2010.
Steele, M., R. Morley, and W. Ermold, 2001: PHC: A global ocean hydrography with a high quality Arctic Ocean. J. Climate, 14, 2079–2087.
Stroeve, J., M. M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M. Serreze, 2007: Arctic Sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029703.
Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos, 2008: Arctic Sea ice extent plummets in 2007. Eos. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 89(2), 13–14, doi: 10.1029/2008EO020001.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular Modes in the extratropical circulation, Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 1000–1016.
Thorndike, A. S., D. S. Rothrock, G. A. Maykut, and R. Colony, 1975: Thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80(C33), 4501–4513, doi: 10.1029/JC080i033p04501.
Wang, B., H. Wan, Z. Z. Ji, X. Zhang, R. C. Yu, Y. Q. Yu, and H. L. Liu, 2004: Design of a new dynamical core for global atmospheric models based on some efficient numerical methods. Science China (A), 47, 4–21.
Woodgate, R. A., and K. Aagaard, 2005: Revising the Bering Strait freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021747.
Yu, R. C., 1994: A two-step shape-preserving advection scheme. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 11, 79–90.
Yu, Y., and Coauthors, 2008: Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 25(4), 641–654, doi: 10.1007/s00376-008-0641-0.
Yu, Y., W. Zheng, B. Wang, H. Liu, and J. Liu, 2011: Versions g1.0 and g1.1 of the LASG/IAP flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28(1), 99–117, doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9112-5.
Zhang, G. J., and M. Mu, 2005: Effects of modifications to the Zhang-McFarlane convection parameterization on the simulation of the tropical precipitation in the national center for atmospheric research community climate model, version 3. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D09109, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005617.
Zhang, X., and J. E. Walsh, 2006: Toward a seasonally ice-covered Arctic Ocean: Scenarios from the IPCC AR4 model simulations. J. Climate, 19, 1730–1747, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3767.
About this article
Cite this article
Xu, S., Song, M., Liu, J. et al. Simulation of sea ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and late 20th century changes. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 30, 658–673 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-013-2158-4
- sea ice
- seasonal change