Skip to main content

Mycorrhizal symbiosis balances rootstock-mediated growth-defence tradeoffs

Abstract

It is well known that AM symbiosis provides several ecosystem services leading to plant adaptation in different environmental conditions and positively affects physiological and production features. Although beneficial effects from grapevine and AM fungi interactions have been reported, the impact on growth-defence tradeoff features has still to be elucidated. In this study, the potential benefits of an inoculum formed by two AM fungal species, with or without a monosaccharide addition, were evaluated on young grapevine cuttings grafted onto 1103P and SO4 rootstocks. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were maintained in potted vineyard substrate under greenhouse conditions for 3 months. Here, agronomic features were combined with biochemical and molecular techniques to assess the influence of the different treatments. Despite the opposite behaviour of the two selected rootstocks, in AM samples, the evaluation of gene expression, agronomic traits and metabolites production revealed an involvement of the whole root microbiome in the growth-defence tradeoff balancing. Noteworthy, we showed that rootstock genotypes and treatments shaped the root-associated microbes, stimulating plant growth and defence pathways. Progresses in this field would open new perspectives, enabling the application of AMF or their inducers to achieve a more sustainable agriculture also in light of the ongoing climate change.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Data availability

Sequences were deposited in NCBI database under the BioProject PRJNA718015, BioSamples SAMN18520793 to SAMN18520808 and SRR14089924 to SRR14089939.

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

Louis Mercy for the preparation of the inoculum and the monosaccharide (Inducer) used in this study. Figure 7 was created with BioRender.com.

Funding

The authors thanks RAVIT project funded by Villa Sandi S.p.A.; BIOPRIME project funded by Mipaaf; Italy and CNR project Green and Circular Economy, FOE-2019 DBA.AD003.139; REVINE-PRIMA project funded by the European Commission, Italian MUR DM n. 1966/2021 Project ID 20114-2.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

WC, RB and LN designed the experimental system. LN, GQ, GG, LM, NB, LL, RP, MGV, MS, FG, RB and WC conducted the wet lab experiments and performed data elaboration. LN, GQ, RB and WC performed RT-qPCR analyses. LN, GG and WC performed the microbiome data analysis of root endophytes. LN, RB and WC wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All the authors carefully revised the final version.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Raffaella Balestrini or Walter Chitarra.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Fig. S1

Gene expression changes of defence-related target genes in both leaf and root. a VvSTP13 in leaf. b VvSTP13 in root. c VvChitIII in leaf. d VvChitIII in root. e VvCAS2 in leaf. f VvLOX in leaf. g VvEDS1 in leaf. h VvHNT1 in leaf. All data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). ns, *, ** and ***: non-significant or significant at P ≤ 0.05, P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively. Different lowercase letters above the bars indicate significant differences according to Tukey HSD test (P ≤ 0.05), considering R × I × M interaction. Analysis of variance on the single variables is reported in Table S2. Different uppercase letters above the bars indicate significant differences according to Tukey HSD test (P ≤ 0.05) considering the two rootstocks independently. C, control plants; I, inducer-treated plants; M, AMF mixed inoculum-treated plants; M+I AMF mixed inoculum + inducer-treated plants for 1103P and SO4 selected rootstocks (PNG 13337 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 1037 kb)

Fig. S2

NMDS of root-associated fungal communities. NMDS algorithm based on Bray-Curtis distances matrixes was used to reduce into a bi-dimensional scaling data obtained for and fungi community (n=3) (PNG 7484 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 176 kb)

Fig. S3

Distinct root-associated fungal community structure among treatments. Relative abundances of bacterial class (a) and genera (b) among treatments. Only genera representing at least the 1% over the total number of classified amplicons were retained (n = 3). C, control plants; I, inducer-treated plants; M, AMF mixed inoculum-treated plants; M+I AMF mixed inoculum + inducer-treated plants for 1103P and SO4 selected rootstocks (PNG 14150 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 936 kb)

Fig. S4

Relative abundances of fungal pathogens genera. C, control plants; I, inducer-treated plants; M, AMF mixed inoculum-treated plants; M+I AMF mixed inoculum + inducer-treated plants for 1103P and SO4 selected rootstocks (n = 3) (PNG 5432 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 298 kb)

Table S1

Oligonucleotides used in this study (DOC 73 kb)

Table S2

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) outcomes of target genes, metabolites and nitrogen content in leaf and root tissues. Different letters within each column indicate significant differences according to Tukey HSD test (P ≤ 0.05). Rootstock (R), inducer (I) and Myc (M) main effects were compared using the Student’s t test (P ≤ 0.05) (XLSX 55 kb)

Table S3

General feature from sequencing results of MiSeq Illumina using specific 16S or ITS primers together with PNA (DOCX 31 kb)

Table S4

Shannon index for bacterial (16S) communities sampled among the different treatments (DOCX 22 kb)

Table S5

Shannon index for fungal (ITS) communities sampled among the different treatments (DOCX 22 kb)

Table S6

Summary of bacterial and fungal community composition among treatments (XLSX 375 kb)

Table S7

Statistical analysis of the bacterial community among the different treatments (XLSX 99 kb)

Table S8

Statistical analysis of the fungal community among the different treatments (XLSX 82 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nerva, L., Giudice, G., Quiroga, G. et al. Mycorrhizal symbiosis balances rootstock-mediated growth-defence tradeoffs. Biol Fertil Soils 58, 17–34 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-021-01607-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-021-01607-8

Keywords

  • AM fungi
  • Tradeoff
  • Plant priming
  • Stress tolerance
  • N
  • Growth-defence balance