Split N and P addition decreases straw mineralization and the priming effect of a paddy soil: a 100-day incubation experiment

A Correction to this article is available

This article has been updated

Abstract

The effect of mineral fertilization and its application pattern on microbial activity and the subsequent CO2 and CH4 emissions arising from soil organic matter (SOM) or added substrate remains unclear. We quantified the decomposition of 13C-labeled straw and the priming effect (PE) governed by the N and P fertilizer application pattern during a 100-day experiment in a flooded soil. Straw addition increased the total CO2 and CH4 emissions. Straw mineralization increased by 30% and decreased by 19% after full and split NP application, respectively, compared with only straw addition. However, application of NP fertilization (full or split) inhibited straw-derived CH4 emissions compared with only straw addition. SOM decomposition was increased by straw addition, yielding a positive PE for CO2 emission. The application of split NP fertilization along with straw addition improved microbial activity, yielding the highest positive PE for CO2 emission. In contrast, compared with the control (no addition), split NP application decreased the positive PE for CH4 emission. Therefore, the straw-C-derived total CO2 equivalent emission was decreased by split NP application. These results were mainly attributable to the increased Olsen P, microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and straw-derived C microbial use efficiency of split NP application, which negatively affected the PE for CH4 emission; this was supported by the results of standardized total effects determined from structural equation models. Overall, compared with full application, split NP fertilizer application significantly decreased the straw-C mineralization rate and PE for CH4 emission, thereby mitigating greenhouse gas emission and SOM storage in paddy soil.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Change history

  • 06 August 2019

    The author regret that the above article originally published with an error in the equation under “Calculation of GHG emission, PE, C-mineralization, microbial C use efficiency, and enzyme activity” section. The corrected equation is now presented in this article.

References

  1. Barrow NJ (2008) The description of sorption curves. Eur J Soil Sci 59:900–910

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Beillouin D, Trépos R, Gauffreteau A, Jeuffroy MH (2018) Delayed and reduced nitrogen fertilization strategies decrease nitrogen losses while still achieving high yields and high grain quality in malting barley. Eur J Agron 101:174–182

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Blagodatskaya E, Khomyakov N, Myachina O, Bogomolova I, Blagodatsky S, Kuzyakov Y (2014) Microbial interactions affect sources of priming induced by cellulose. Soil Biol Biochem 74:39–49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Blagodatsky S, Blagodatskaya E, Yuyukina T, Kuzyakov Y (2010) Model of apparent and real priming effects: linking microbial activity with soil organic matter decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1275–1283

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Butterly CR, Armstrong RD, Chen D, Tang C (2019) Residue decomposition and soil carbon priming in three contrasting soils previously exposed to elevated CO2. Biol Fertil Soils 55:17–29

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cai Z, Tsuruta H, Rong X, Xu H, Yuan Z (2001) CH4 emissions from rice paddies managed according to farmer’s practice in Hunan, China. Biogeochemistry 56:75–91

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Chen R, Senbayram M, Blagodatsky S, Myachina O, Dittert K, Lin X, Blagodatskya E, Kuzyakov Y (2014) Soil C and N availability determine the priming effect: microbial N mining and stoichiometric decomposition theories. Glob Chang Biol 20:2356–2367

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Conrad R, Klose M, Yuan Q, Lu Y, Chidthaisong A (2012) Stable carbon isotope fractionation, carbon flux partitioning and priming effects in anoxic soils during methanogenic degradation of straw and soil organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 49:193–199

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Craine JM, Morrow C, Fierer N (2007) Microbial nitrogen limitation increases decomposition. Ecology 88:2105–2113

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Dan J, Krüger M, Frenzel P, Conrad R (2001) Effect of a late season urea fertilization on methane emission from a rice field in Italy. Agric Ecosyst Environ 83:191–199

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Dong H, Yao Z, Zheng X, Mei B, Xie B, Wang R, Deng J, Cui F, Zhu J (2011) Effect of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers on CH4 emissions from a paddy field with a typical Chinese water management regime. Atmos Environ 45:1095–1101

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Fang Y, Singh BP, Collins D, Li B, Zhu J, Tavakkoli E (2018) Nutrient supply enhanced wheat residue-carbon mineralization, microbial growth, and microbial carbon-use efficiency when residues were supplied at high rate in contrasting soils. Soil Biol Biochem 126:168–178

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Finn D, Page K, Catton K, Kienzle M, Robertson F, Armstrong R, Dalal R (2016) Ecological stoichiometry controls the transformation and retention of plant-derived organic matter to humus in response to nitrogen fertilisation. Soil Biol Biochem 99:117–127

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Ge T, Yuan H, Zhu H, Wu X, Nie S, Liu C, Tong C, Wu J, Brookes P (2012) Biological carbon assimilation and dynamics in a flooded rice – soil system. Soil Biol Biochem 48:39–46

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Ge T, Liu C, Yuan H, Zhao Z, Wu X, Zhu Z, Brookes P, Wu J (2015) Tracking the photosynthesized carbon input into soil organic carbon pools in a rice soil fertilized with nitrogen. Plant Soil 392:17–25

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ge T, Li B, Zhu Z, Hu Y, Yuan H, Dorodnikov M, Jones D, Wu J, Kuzyakov Y (2017) Rice rhizodeposition and its utilization by microbial groups depends on N fertilization. Biol Fertil Soils 53:37–48

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Geyer KM, Kyker-Snowman E, Grandy AS, Frey SD (2016) Microbial carbon use efficiency: accounting for population, community, and ecosystem-scale controls over the fate of metabolized organic matter. Biogeochemistry 127:173–188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Ghafoor A, Poeplau C, Kätterer T (2017) Fate of straw- and root-derived carbon in a Swedish agricultural soil. Biol Fertil Soils 53:257–267

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Hessen DO, Ågren GI, Anderson TR, Elser JJ, de Ruiter PC (2004) Carbon sequestration in ecosystems: the role of stoichiometry. Ecology 85:1179–1192

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Keiblinger KM, Hall EK, Wanek W, Szukics U, Hämmerle I, Ellersdorfer G, Moll S, Strauss J, Sterflinger K, Richter A, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2010) The effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 73:430–440

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Khan KS, Joergensen RG (2019) Stoichiometry of the soil microbial biomass in response to amendments with varying C/N/P/S ratios. Biol Fertil Soils 55:265–274

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Kirkby CA, Richardson AE, Wade LJ, Batten GD, Blanchard C, Kirkegaard JA (2013) Carbon-nutrient stoichiometry to increase soil carbon sequestration. Soil Biol Biochem 60:77–86

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Kuzyakov Y, Friedel JK, Stahr K (2000) Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1485–1498

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Lehtinen T, Schlatter N, Baumgarten A, Bechini L, Krüger J, Grignani C, Zavattaro L, Costamagna C, Spiegel H (2014) Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in European agricultural soils. Soil Use Manag 30:524–538

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Li G, Lin J, Xue L, Ding Y, Wang S, Yang L (2018) Fate of basal N under split fertilization in rice with 15N isotope tracer. Pedosphere 28:135–143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ling QH (2010) Theory and technology of rice precise and quantitative cultivation. Hybrid Rice S1:27–34

    Google Scholar 

  28. Liu Y, Ge T, Zhu Z, Liu S, Luo Y, Li Y, Wang P, Gavrichkova O, Xu X, Wang J, Wu J, Guggenberger G, Kuzyakov Y (2019) Carbon input and allocation by rice into paddy soils: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 133:97–107

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Lu Y, Wassmann R, Neue HU, Huang C, Bueno CS (2000) Methanogenic responses to exogenous substrates in anaerobic rice soils. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1683–1690

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Lu Y, Watanabe A, Kimura M (2002) Input and distribution of photosynthesized carbon in a flooded rice soil. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 16:32-31–32-38

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Luo Y, Zhu Z, Liu S, Peng P, Xu J, Brookes P, Ge T, Wu J (2018) Nitrogen fertilization increases rice rhizodeposition and its stabilization in soil aggregates and the humus fraction. Plant Soil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3833-0

  32. Ma L, Yang L, Xiao H, Xia L, Li Y, Liu X (2011) Effects of fertilization and straw returning on distribution and mineralization of organic carbon in paddy soils in subtropical China. Soils 43:883–889

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Manzoni S, Trofymow JA, Jackson RB, Porporato A (2010) Stoichiometric controls on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in decomposing litter. Ecol Monogr 80:89–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Mganga KZ, Kuzyakov Y (2018) Land use and fertilisation affect priming in tropical andosols. Eur J Soil Biol 87:9–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Mooshammer M, Wanek W, Hämmerle I, Fuchslueger L, Hofhansl F, Knoltsch A, Schnecker J, Takriti M, Watzka M, Wild B, Keiblinger KM, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Richter A (2014) Adjustment of microbial nitrogen use efficiency to carbon:nitrogen imbalances regulates soil nitrogen cycling. Nat Commun 5:3694

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Myhre G, Shindell D, Breaôn FM, Collins W, Fuglestvedt J, Huang J (2013) Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. In Climate Change 2013 – The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change pp 659–740

  37. Nannipieri P, Ascher J, Ceccherini MT, Landi L, Pietramellara G, Renella G (2003) Microbial diversity and soil functions. Eur J Soil Sci 54:655–670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Nannipieri P, Trasar-Cepeda C, Dick RP (2018) Soil enzyme activity: a brief history and biochemistry as a basis for appropriate interpretations and meta-analysis. Biol Fert Soils 54:11–19

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Phosphorous. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2, chemical and microbial properties. Agronomy Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 403–430

    Google Scholar 

  40. Phillips DL, Newsome SD, Gregg JW (2005) Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods. Oecologia 144:520–527

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Poeplau C, Herrmann AM, Kätterer T (2016) Opposing effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on soil microbial metabolism and the implications for soil carbon storage. Soil Biol Biochem 100:83–91

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Rath KM, Rousk J (2015) Salt effects on the soil microbial decomposer community and their role in organic carbon cycling: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 81:108–123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Rath AK, Ramakrishnan B, Rao VR, Sethunathan N (2005) Effects of rice-straw and phosphorus application on production and emission of methane from tropical rice soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:248–254

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Sauvadet M, Lashermes G, Alavoine G, Recous S, Chauvat M, Maron P-A, Bertrand I (2018) High carbon use efficiency and low priming effect promote soil C stabilization under reduced tillage. Soil Biol Biochem 123:64–73

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Shahbaz M, Kuzyakov Y, Sanaullah M, Heitkamp F, Zelenev V, Kumar A, Blagodatskaya E (2017) Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is mediated by quality and quantity of crop residues: mechanisms and thresholds. Biol Fertil Soils 53:287–301

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Shen J, Tang H, Liu J, Wang C, Li Y, Ge T, Jones DL, Wu J (2014) Contrasting effects of straw and straw-derived biochar amendments on greenhouse gas emissions within double rice cropping systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 188:264–274

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Singh Y, Singh B, Ladha J, Khind C, Gupta R, Meelu O, Pasuquin E (2004) Long-term effects of organic inputs on yield and soil fertility in the rice-wheat rotation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:845–853

    Google Scholar 

  48. Sinsabaugh RL, Follstad Shah JJ (2012) Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and ecological theory. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 43:313–343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Sinsabaugh RL, Manzoni S, Moorhead DL, Richter A (2013) Carbon use efficiency of microbial communities: stoichiometry, methodology and modelling. Ecol Lett 16:930–939

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Sinsabaugh RL, Turner BL, Talbot JM, Waring BG, Powers JS, Kuske CR, Moorhead DL, Follstad Shah JJ (2016) Stoichiometry of microbial carbon use efficiency in soils. Ecol Monogr 86:172–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Spohn M, Klaus K, Wanek W, Richter A (2016) Microbial carbon use efficiency and biomass turnover times depending on soil depth – implications for carbon cycling. Soil Biol Biochem 96:74–81

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Veraart AJ, Steenbergh AK, Ho A, Kim SY, Bodelier PLE (2015) Beyond nitrogen: the importance of phosphorus for CH4 oxidation in soils and sediments. Geoderma 259–260:337–346

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Wang X, Shi X, Song G (2005) Effects of long-term rice straw returning on the fertility and productivity of purplish paddy soil. Plant Nutr Fertil Sci 11:302–307

    Google Scholar 

  54. Wei X, Razavi B, Hu Y, Xu X, Zhu Z, Liu Y, Kuzyakov Y, Li Y, Wu J, Ge T (2019a) C/P stoichiometry of dying rice root defines the spatial distribution and dynamics of enzyme activities in root-detritusphere. Biol Fertil Soils 55:251–263

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Wei X, Zhu Z, Wei L, Wu J, Ge T (2019b) Biogeochemical cycles of key elements in the paddy-rice rhizosphere: microbial mechanisms and coupling processes. Rhizosphere 10:100145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Wu J, Joergensen RG, Pommerening B, Chaussod R, Brookes PC (1990) Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation-extraction—an automated procedure. Soil Biol Biochem 22:1167–1169

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Xu S, Jaffé PR, Mauzerall DL (2007) A process-based model for methane emission from flooded rice paddy systems. Ecol Model 205:475–491

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Ye R, Doane TA, Morris J, Horwath WR (2015) The effect of rice straw on the priming of soil organic matter and methane production in peat soils. Soil Biol Biochem 81:98–107

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Zheng Y, Zhang LM, He JZ (2013) Immediate effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium amendments on the methanotrophic activity and abundance in a Chinese paddy soil under short-term incubation experiment. J Soils Sediments 13:189–196

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Zhou Z, Wang C, Jin Y (2017) Stoichiometric responses of soil microflora to nutrient additions for two temperate forest soils. Biol Fertil Soils 53:397–406

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Zhu Z, Zeng G, Ge T, Hu Y, Tong C, Shibistova O, He X, Wang J, Guggenberger G, Wu J (2016) Fate of rice shoot and root residues, rhizodeposits, and microbe-assimilated carbon in paddy soil – part 1: decomposition and priming effect. Biogeosciences 13:4481–4489

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Zhu Z, Ge T, Luo Y, Liu S, Xu X, Tong C, Shibistova O, Guggenberger G, Wu J (2018a) Microbial stoichiometric flexibility regulates rice straw mineralization and its priming effect in paddy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 121:67–76

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Zhu Z, Ge T, Liu S, Hu Y, Ye R, Xiao M, Tong C, Kuzyakov Y, Wu J (2018b) Rice rhizodeposits affect organic matter priming in paddy soil: the role of N fertilization and plant growth for enzyme activities, CO2 and CH4 emissions. Soil Biol Biochem 116:369–377

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Zou J, Huang Y, Jiang J, Zheng X, Sass RL (2005) A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: effects of water regime, crop residue, and fertilizer application. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 19:GB2021

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (41430860, 41877104, and 41811540031); Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2019JJ30028); Innovative Research Groups of the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2019JJ10003); the Youth Innovation Team Project of the Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017QNCXTD_GTD); the Hunan Province Base for Scientific and Technological Innovation Cooperation (2018WK4012); JSPS and NSFC under the Japan-China Scientific Cooperation Program; and the Public Service Technology Centre, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhenke Zhu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 146 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, D., Zhu, Z., Shahbaz, M. et al. Split N and P addition decreases straw mineralization and the priming effect of a paddy soil: a 100-day incubation experiment. Biol Fertil Soils 55, 701–712 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-019-01383-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Straw return
  • Mineral fertilizer application
  • SOM mineralization
  • Microbial C use efficiency
  • CO2 equivalent emission
  • Paddy soil ecosystem