Spatiotemporal patterns of enzyme activities in the rhizosphere: effects of plant growth and root morphology
- 370 Downloads
Lentil and lupine, having contrasting root morphologies, were chosen to investigate the effects of plant growth and root morphology on the spatial distribution of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase, and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Lentil kept as vegetative growth and the rhizosphere extent was constant, while the enzyme activities at the root surface kept increasing. Lupine entered reproductive growth in the seventh week after planting, the rhizosphere extent was broader in the eighth week than in the first and fourth weeks. However, enzyme activity at the root surface of lupine decreased by 10–50% in comparison to the preceding vegetative stage (first and fourth weeks). Lupine lateral roots accounted for 1.5–3.5 times more rhizosphere volume per root length than taproots, with 6–14-fold higher enzyme activity per root surface area. Therefore, we conclude that plant growth and root morphology influenced enzyme activity and shape the rhizosphere as follows: the enzyme activity in the rhizosphere increased with plant growth until reproductive stage; lateral roots have much larger rhizosphere volume per unit root length and higher enzyme activity per root surface area than the taproots.
KeywordsRhizosphere extent Enzyme spatial distribution Zymography Plant growth stage Root morphology Visualization approaches
We gratefully acknowledge the China Scholarship Council (CSC) (201506300073 and 201406300014), for supporting Xiaomin Ma and Yuan Liu, respectively. The contribution of Evgenia Blagodatskaya was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (project no. 14-14-00625). The publication was prepared with the support of the “RUDN University program 5-100”. This study was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Research Unit (FOR 918) “Carbon Flow in Belowground Food Webs assessed by Isotope Tracers” (KU 1184/13-2) and “Biopores as hotspots of nutrient acquisition from subsoil” (PAK 888; KU 1184/29-1). We thank three anonymous reviewers and the editor for their very helpful suggestions.
- Badalucco L, Kuikman PJ (2001). Mineralization and immobilization in the rhizosphere. In: Pinton, R, Varanini, Z, Nannipieri, P (Eds.) The rhizosphere. biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 141–196Google Scholar
- Baraniya D, Puglisi E, Ceccherini MT, Pietramellara G, Giagnoni L, Arenella M, Nannipieri P, Renella G (2016) Protease encoding microbial communities and protease activity of the rhizosphere and bulk soils of two maize lines with different N uptake efficiency. Soil Biol Biochem 96:176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Croser JS, Pazos-Navarro M, Bennett RG, Tschirren S, Edwards K, Erskine W, Creasy R, Ribalta FM (2016) Time to flowering of temperate pulses in vivo and generation turnover in vivo-in vitro of narrow-leaf lupin accelerated by low red to far-red ratio and high intensity in the far-red region. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 127:591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dazzo FB, Gantner S (2012) The rhizosphere. In: Schmidt TM, Schaechter M (eds) Topics in ecological and environmental microbiology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 466–480Google Scholar
- Gambetta GA, Fei J, Rost TL, Knipfer T, Matthews MA, Shackel KA, Walker MA, McElrone AJ (2013) Water uptake along the length of grapevine fine roots: developmental anatomy, tissue-specific aquaporin expression, and pathways of water transport. Plant Physiol 163:1254–1265CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nannipieri P, Ascher J, Ceccherini MT, Landi L, Pietramellara G, Renella G, Valori F (2007) Microbial diversity and microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Cien Suelo 25:89–97Google Scholar
- Neumann G, Römheld V (2000) The release of root exudates as affected by the plant’s physiological status. In: Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds) The rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 41–93Google Scholar
- Šarapatka B, Dudová L, Kršková M (2004) Effect of pH and phosphate supply on acid phosphatase activity in cereal roots. Biologia 59:127–131Google Scholar
- Steudle E, Peterson CA (1998) How does water get through roots? J Exp Bot 49:775–788Google Scholar