Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 53, Issue 8, pp 861–872 | Cite as

Bioorganic fertilizer maintains a more stable soil microbiome than chemical fertilizer for monocropping

  • Feng Cai
  • Guan Pang
  • Rui-Xia Li
  • Rong Li
  • Xiao-Long Gu
  • Qi-Rong Shen
  • Wei ChenEmail author
Original Paper


Understanding the responses of soil microbiome composition to various farming practices is important for selecting suitable managements to maintain soil functions. In this study, the influences of heavy chemical fertilizer application (CF) and reduced chemical fertilizer supplemented with organic (OF) or bioorganic fertilizer (BF, BF = OF + Trichoderma) on composition of soil microbiome were investigated for monocropping cucumber systems using a five-season continuous pot experiment. The MiSeq sequencing data indicated that the CF treatment resulted in the lowest fungal diversity and the BF treatment resulted in a relatively higher one close to the initial soil (CK). The BF and OF treatments had similar impacts on the composition of bacterial community, and the CF treatment significantly reduced bacterial diversity. Although both OF and BF treatments had better plant growth responses, they had less disturbance on the composition of fungal community relative to the CF treatment. The BF treatment is more predictable than the other treatments for postponing fungal diversity as the inoculated fungal species significantly (p < 0.05) affected the fungal community. In conclusion, the combination of bioorganic fertilizers with reduced chemical fertilizer application can maintain a diverse soil microbiome in cucumber monocropping.


Cucumber monocropping Soil bacterial and fungal community MiSeq sequencing Soil nutrient characteristics 



This research was supported by the National Key Technology R&D Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013BAD20B05 and L0201400202).

Supplementary material

374_2017_1216_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 17 kb).
374_2017_1216_Fig5_ESM.gif (11 kb)
Fig. S1

Hierarchical cluster tree of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities. Pairwise Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of samples collected from different soil samples: CK, initial soil sample collected before planting and fertilization; CF, 100% chemical fertilizer; BF, 75% chemical fertilizer + bioorganic fertilizer; OF, 75% chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer. (GIF 10 kb).

374_2017_1216_MOESM2_ESM.tif (267 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 266 kb).
374_2017_1216_Fig6_ESM.gif (107 kb)
Fig. S2

Rarefaction curves of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities based on observed OTUs at 3% distance for individual sample. CK, initial soil sample collected before planting and fertilization; CF, 100% chemical fertilizer; BF, 75% chemical fertilizer + bioorganic fertilizer; OF, 75% chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer. (GIF 107 kb).

374_2017_1216_MOESM3_ESM.tif (2.1 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 2167 kb).
374_2017_1216_Fig7_ESM.gif (291 kb)
Fig. S3

Venn diagram of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities. CK, initial soil sample collected before planting and fertilization; CF, 100% chemical fertilizer; BF, 75% chemical fertilizer + bioorganic fertilizer; OF, 75% chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer. (GIF 290 kb).

374_2017_1216_MOESM4_ESM.tif (5.5 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 5640 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Cai
    • 1
  • Guan Pang
    • 1
  • Rui-Xia Li
    • 1
  • Rong Li
    • 1
  • Xiao-Long Gu
    • 1
  • Qi-Rong Shen
    • 1
  • Wei Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based FertilizersNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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