Fungal bioaugmentation of two rice husk-based biomixtures for the removal of carbofuran in on-farm biopurification systems
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The ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of compost- (GCS) and peat-based (GTS) biomixtures for the removal of the insecticide-nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Among several lignocellulosic substrates, fungal colonization was best supported in rice husk, and this pre-colonized substrate was used to prepare the biomixtures. Estimated half-lives for CFN were 3.4 and 8.1 days in the GTS and GCS biomixtures, respectively. The CFN transformation products 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran were detected at the moment of CFN application, but their concentration continuously decreased to complete removal in both biomixtures. Mineralization of 14C-radiolabeled CFN was faster in GTS (k = 0.00248 day−1) than in GCS (k = 0.00188 day−1). Complete elimination of the toxicity in the matrices was demonstrated after 48 days. Overall data suggest that the bioaugmentation improved the performance of the GTS rather than the GCS biomixture.
KeywordsBiopurification system Bioaugmentation Degradation Pesticides Fungi Toxicity
The authors acknowledge Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Universidad de Costa Rica (projects 802-B2-046, 802-B4-503 and 802-B4-609), the Costa Rican Ministry of Science, Technology and Telecommunications, MICITT (project FI-093-13), and the Joint FAO/IAEA project TC COS5/029 for supporting this work.
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