Network establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae in the rhizospheres between citrus rootstocks and Paspalum notatum or Vulpia myuros grown in sand substrate

  • Takaaki IshiiEmail author
  • Atsushi Matsumura
  • Sachie Horii
  • Hino Motosugi
  • Andre Freire Cruz
Short Communication


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the favorable effects of sod culture system with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge.) and Vulpia myuros (L.) C. C. Gmel. intercropped with citrus trees on the establishment of the network of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus hyphae in their rhizospheres. Special acrylic root boxes with three compartments were used for the experiment. Four types of citrus rootstock seedlings, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.), and Citrus natsudaidai Hayata, were separately transplanted into one outer compartment in each box, and the seedlings of bahiagrass and V.myuros were separately transplanted into the other outer compartment. An AM fungus, Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall, was inoculated in the center compartment of each box. Some boxes with both outer compartments without plants and with some plants in only one outer compartment were also prepared. The box with bare × bare had very low density of AM hyphae. There were a few hyphae in bare compartments in the boxes of trifoliate orange × bare, sour orange × bare, rough lemon × bare, and C. natsudaidai × bare. The density of hyphae in the compartments with citrus seedlings and grasses, however, was significantly higher than in every bare compartment, and the hyphae in the compartments with plants penetrated deeply into the sand. In particular, the density in the compartments of citrus seedlings increased when bahiagrass or V. myuros was transplanted as a neighboring plant. The percentage of AM fungus colonization in every plant root was high. New spore formation was observed in compartments with plants, whereas there were few spores in every bare compartment. In particular, the spore formation in bahiagrass compartments was superior to that in other compartments with plants. Our results suggest that the network system by AM hyphae is easily discernible in the rhizospheres between citrus rootstocks and bahiagrass or V. myuros, but bare ground severely inhibits the formation and development of AM hyphal network and reduces the number of AM spores in the soil.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Hyphal network Paspalum notatum Sod culture Vulpia myuros 



This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research (No. 11460014) from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takaaki Ishii
    • 1
    Email author
  • Atsushi Matsumura
    • 1
  • Sachie Horii
    • 1
  • Hino Motosugi
    • 1
  • Andre Freire Cruz
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto Prefectural UniversityKyotoJapan

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