Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 37–47 | Cite as

Changes in phosphorus fractions, sorption and release in Udic Mollisols under different ecosystems

  • C. Song
  • X. Z. Han
  • C. TangEmail author
Original Paper


A 20-year field trial was conducted to study the effects of ecological factors and fertilization on phosphorus characteristics of fertile Udic Mollisols under three ecosystems: (1) bare land ecosystem with no vegetation or fertilizers (BE), (2) natural ecosystem with native grasses but no fertilizers (NE) and (3) agroecosystem with a rotation of wheat–soybean–corn. The agroecosystem had received N and P fertilizers during 1985–1993 and had received no fertilizers (CK), N and P fertilizers (NP) or N and P fertilizers along with pig manure (NPM) during 1994–2005. While there was no P input or removal in the BE and NE, the CK had a net P loss of 174 kg ha−1, whereas the NP had a net gain of 96 kg/ha and the NPM 504 kg ha−1. Increasing net P input increased both Olsen P and total P in the 0–20-cm soil. The amounts of NaHCO3-extractable (Ca2–P) and NH4Ac-extractable P fractions (Ca8–P) were in an order of NPM > NP > CK > NE > BE. The H2SO4-extractable fraction (Ca10–P) was lowest in the BE and highest in the NPM but was similar in the other treatments. The CK had the least, and the NPM had the highest amounts of NH4F-extractable (Al–P) and NaOH–Na2CO3-extractable fractions (Fe–P). Among the inorganic P, the percentage of Ca2–P, Ca8–P and Al–P increased, whereas that of Fe–P, occluded P and Ca10–P decreased with increasing P input into the system. Soil P adsorption was in an order of CK > NE > NP > BE > NPM, whereas P release was in an order of NPM ≫ NP > CK > NE > BE. The study concluded that soil P can be sustained under the natural ecosystem while annual applications of chemical fertilizers and animal manure increased both labile and non-labile P pools in the agroecosystem.


Animal manure Ecosystems Fractionation Long term Nutrient management P sorption 



This research was supported by the Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX2-YW-N-002) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2005CB121101). We thank Professor G X Pan for soil taxonomy, and the editor and two anonymous referees for their constructive comments.


  1. Allen BL, Mallarino AP (2006) Relationships between extractable soil phosphorus and phosphorus saturation after long-term fertilizer or manure application. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:454–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrow NJ (1983) On the reversibility of phosphate sorption by soil. J Soil Sci 34:751–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Börling K, Otabbong E, Barberis AP (2004) Soil variables for predicting potential phosphorus release in Swedish noncalcareous soils. J Environ Qual 33:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bremner JM (1996) Nitrogen-total. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis: Chemical methods, Part 3. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 1085–1121Google Scholar
  5. Chang SC, Jackson ML (1957) Fractionation of soil phosphorus. Soil Sci 84:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooke IJ (1966) A kinetic approach to the description of soil phosphate status. J Soil Sci 17:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Daniel TC, Sharpley AN, Lemunyon JL (1998) Agriculturalphosphorus and eutrophication—a symposium overview. J Environ Qual 27:251–257Google Scholar
  8. Drijber RA, Doran JW, Parkhurst AM, Lyon DJ (2000) Changes in soil microbial community structure with tillage under long-term wheat–fallow management. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1419–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox RL, Kamprath EJ (1970) Phosphate sorption isotherms for evaluating the phosphate requirements of soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34:902–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guppy CN, Menzies NW, Moody PW, Blamey FPC (2005) Competitive sorption reactions between phosphorus and organic matter on soil: a review. Aust J Soil Res 43:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Han XZ, Song CY, Wang SY, Tang C (2005a) Impact of long-term fertilization on phosphorus status in black soil. Pedosphere 15:319–326Google Scholar
  12. Han XZ, Tang C, Song CY, Wang SY, Qiao YF (2005b) Phosphorus characteristics correlate with soil fertility of albic luvisols. Plant Soil 270:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hasemen JF, Brown EF, Whitt CD (1950) Some reactions of phosphate with clays and hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum. Soil Sci 70:257–271Google Scholar
  14. Haynes RJ, Mokolobate MS (2001) Amelioration of Al toxicity and P deficiency in acid soils by addition of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms involved. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 59:47–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hedley MJ, Stewart JWB, Chauhan BS (1982a) Changes in inorganic and organic soil phosphorus fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:970–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hedley MJ, White RE, Nye PH (1982b) Plant-induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. Emerald) seedlings. III. Changes in L value, soil phosphate fractions and phosphatase activity. New Phytol 91:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hughes S, Reynolds B, Bell SA, Gardner C (2000) Simple phosphorus saturation index to estimate risk of dissolved phosphorus in runoff from arable soils. Soil Use Manage 16:206–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang BF, Gu YC (1989) A suggested fractionation scheme of inorganic phosphorus in calcareous soils. Sci Agric Sin 22:58–66Google Scholar
  19. Kuo S (1996) Phosphorus. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis: chemical methods. Part 3. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 869–919Google Scholar
  20. Legg JO, Black CA (1955) Determination of organic phosphorus in soils. II. Ignition method. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 19:139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Motavalli PP, Miles RJ (2002) Soil fractions after 111 years of animal manure and fertilizer application. Biol Fertil Soils 36:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996) Total C, organic C, and organic matter. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis: chemical methods. Part 3. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 961–1010Google Scholar
  23. Olsen SR, Watanable KS (1957) A method to determine a phosphorus adsorption maximum of soil as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 21:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reuter DJ, Robinson JB (1997) Plant analysis: an interpretation manual. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharma KN, Singh H, Vig AC (1995) Influence of continuous cropping and fertilization on adsorption and desorption of soil phosphorus. Fert Res 40:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharpley A (2000) Phosphorus availability. In: Sumner EM (ed) Handbook of soil science. CRC, New York, pp D18–D37Google Scholar
  27. Sharpley AN, Smith SJ, Stewart BA, Mathers AC (1984) Forms of phosphorus in soil receiving cattle feedlot waste. J Environ Qual 13:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shen J, Li R, Zhang F, Tang C, Rengel Z (2004) Crop yields, soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in response to long-term fertilization under the rice monoculture system on a calcareous soil. Field Crops Res 86:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sui Y, Thompson ML, Shang C (1999) Fractionation of phosphorus in a Mollisol amended with biosolids. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1174–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang C, Dart L, Rogers C, Vu DT, Armstrong RD (2006) Phosphorus fractions in a Vertosol after 88-year crop rotations. In: Alves VMC, Guimarães CT, de Magalhães JV, Schaffert RE, Coelho AM, de Castro Bahia Filho AF, Santana DP (eds) Proceedings of the third international symposium on phosphorus dynamics in the soil–plant continuum. Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, Brazil, pp 67–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural EcologyChinese Academy of SciencesHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural SciencesLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations