Visual simulation of weathering coated metallic objects


Weathering, referring to techniques for depicting outdoor objects as having suffered rain and wind damage, has a long history of research, and many methods can be found in the literature. Metal is a representative target of weathering, as metallic surface corrosion is a widespread deterioration phenomenon in our daily life. However, few weathering methods consider the effects of rust-preventive paint, while real metal is usually treated with a preservative. This paper presents a novel procedural method for weathering coated metal objects. In our method, a coated surface is imposed on a 3D triangular mesh. We enable the mechanical deterioration of coating film, and we deform the mesh model to express cracking and peeling. As further defacing elements on the coating film, runoff rust and darkening are reproduced by changing the color and reflectance of the surface. Besides, by locally adjusting the control parameters of the designated areas on the surface, the process of deterioration can be arbitrarily directed. Several visual simulation results are shown to prove empirically the faithfulness of the proposed methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17


  1. 1.

    Bellini, R., Kleiman, Y., Cohen-Or, D.: Time-varying weathering in texture space. ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 141:1–141:11 (2016)

  2. 2.

    Chang, Y.X., Shih, Z.C.: The synthesis of rust in seawater. Vis. Comput. 19(1), 50–66 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chen, Y., Xia, L., Wong, T.T., Tong, X., Bao, H., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Visual simulation of weathering by \(\gamma \)-ton tracing. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 1127–1133 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Desbenoit, B., Galin, E., Akkouche, S.: Modeling cracks and fractures. Vis. Comput. 21, 717–726 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dorsey, J., Hanrahan, P.: Modeling and rendering of metallic patinas. In: SIGGRAPH ’96 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 387–396 (1996)

  6. 6.

    Gobron, S., Chiba, N.: Simulation of peeling using 3D-surface cellular automata. In: Proceedings of Pacific Graphics 2001, pp. 337–346 (2001)

  7. 7.

    Günther, T., Rohmer, K., Groschn, T.: GPU-accelerated interactive material aging. In: Vision, Modeling, and Visualization, pp. 63–70 (2012)

  8. 8.

    Iizuka, S., Endo, Y., Kanamori, Y., Mitani, J.: Single image weathering via exemplar propagation. Comput. Graph. For. 35(2), 501–509 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ishitobi, A., Nakayama, M., Fujishiro, I.: A deformation method for simulating coating degradation while taking mechanical behavior into account. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), pp. 360–361 (2019)

  10. 10.

    Jain, N., Kalra, P., Kumar, S.: Simulation and rendering of pitting corrosion. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Indian Conference on Computer Vision Graphics and Image Processing, pp. 38:1–38:8

  11. 11.

    Janssen, G., Abdalla, M., Keulen, F., Pujada, R., Venrooy, B.: Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers. Thin Solid Films 517(6), 1858–1867 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Jeong, S., Park, S.H., Kim, C.H.: Simulation of morphology changes in drying leaves. Comput. Graph. For. 32(1), 204–215 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Julian, K., Marc, S., Alejandro, G., Marek, F., Sören, P., Oliver, D., John, H., Bedrich, B.: Woodification: user-controlled cambial growth modeling. Comput. Graph. For. 34(2), 361–372 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kimmel, B.W., Baranoski, G.V.G., Chen, T.F., Yim, D., Miranda, E.: Spectral appearance changes induced by light exposure. ACM Trans. Graph. 32(1), 10:1–10:13 (2013)

  15. 15.

    Mérillou, S., Dischler, J.M., Ghazanfarpour, D.: Corrosion: simulating and rendering. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2001, pp. 167–174 (2001)

  16. 16.

    Mérillou, S., Ghazanfarpour, D.: A survey of aging and weathering phenomena in computer graphics. Comput. Graph. 32(2), 159–174 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Pfaff, T., Narain, R., Joya, J.M., O’Brien, J.F.: Adaptive tearing and cracking of thin sheets. ACM Trans. Graph. 33(4), 110:1–110:9 (2014)

  18. 18.

    Paquette, E., Poulin, P., Drettakis, G.: Surface aging by impacts. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2001, pp. 175–182 (2001)

  19. 19.

    Paquette, E., Poulin, P., Drettakis, G.: The simulation of paint cracking and peeling. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2002, pp. 59–68 (2002)

  20. 20.

    Perlin, K.: Improving noise. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 681–682 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Shinozaki, S., Nakayama, M., Fujishiro, I.: Visual simulation of tearing papers taking anisotropic fiber structure into account. IIEEJ Trans. Image Electron. Vis. Comput. 7(2), 106–115 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Stoney, G.G., Parsons, C.A.: The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, p. 175 (1909)

  23. 23.

    Tanabe, R., Moriya, T., Morimoto, Y., Takahashi, T.: A generation method of rust aging texture considering rust spreading. In: International Workshop on Advanced Image Technology 2015 (2015)

  24. 24.

    Thornton, J.A., Hoffman, D.W.: Internal stresses in titanium, nickel, molybdenum, and tantalum films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 164–168 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Wang, J., Tong, X., Lin, S., Pan, M., Wang, C., Bao, H., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Appearance manifolds for modeling time-variant appearance of materials. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 754–761 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Wong, T.T., Ng, W.Y., Heng, P.A.: A geometry dependent texture generation framework for simulating surface imperfections. In: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop, pp. 139–150 (1997)

  27. 27.

    Xue, S., Wang, J., Tong, X., Dai, Q., Guo, B.: Image-based material weathering. Comput. Graph. For. 27(2), 617–626 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Xue, S., Dorsey, J., Rushmeier, H.: Stone weathering in a photograph. Comput. Graph. For. 30(4), 1189–1196 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Yellott, J.: Spectral consequences of photoreceptor sampling in the rhesus retina. Science 221(4608), 382–385 (1983)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on our early manuscript. This work has been supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI under the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) No. 17H00737.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Issei Fujishiro.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 41685 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ishitobi, A., Nakayama, M. & Fujishiro, I. Visual simulation of weathering coated metallic objects. Vis Comput 36, 2383–2393 (2020).

Download citation


  • Weathering
  • Coating
  • Deformation