Skip to main content

An image-based method for animated stroke rendering

Abstract

This paper presents an image-space stroke rendering algorithm that provides temporally coherent placement of lines at particles that are moving with object surfaces. We generate particles in image space and move them according to an image-space velocity field. Consistent image-space density is achieved by a deterministic rejection-based algorithm that uses low-discrepancy series to filter out overpopulated areas and to fill in underpopulated regions. Our line stabilization method can solve the temporal continuity problems of image-space techniques. The multi-pass algorithm is implemented entirely on the GPU using geometry shaders and vertex transform feedback. Our method provides high-quality results and is implemented as an interactive post processing step. We also provide a wide toolset for artists to control the final rendering style and extended the method to process real-life RGBZ footage.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Bénard, P., Bousseau, A., Thollot, J.: Dynamic solid textures for real-time coherent stylization. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, I3D ’09, pp. 121–127 (2009)

  2. Bénard, P., Bousseau, A., Thollot, J.: State-of-the-art report on temporal coherence for stylized animations. Comput. Graph. Forum 30(8), 2367–2386 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bénard, P., Cole, F., Kass, M., Mordatch, I., Hegarty, J., Senn, M.S., Fleischer, K., Pesare, D., Breeden, K.: Stylizing animation by example. ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 119:1–119:12 (2013)

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. Bénard, P., Lagae, A., Vangorp, P., Lefebvre, S., Drettakis, G., Thollot, J.: A dynamic noise primitive for coherent stylization. Comp. Graph. Forum 29(4), 1497–1506 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bousseau, A., Neyret, F., Thollot, J., Salesin, D.: Video watercolorization using bidirectional texture advection. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 104 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Breslav, S., Szerszen, K., Markosian, L., Barla, P., Thollot, J.: Dynamic 2D patterns for shading 3D scenes. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2007 (2007)

  7. Cornish, D., Rowan, A., Luebke, D.: View-dependent particles for interactive non-photorealistic rendering. In: Proceedings of the Graphics Interface, pp. 151–158 (2001)

  8. Cunzi, M., Thollot, J., Paris, S., Debunne, G., Gascuel, J.D., Durand, F.: Dynamic canvas for immersive non-photorealistic walkthroughs. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface (2003)

  9. Elber, G.: Interactive line art rendering of freeform surfaces. Comput. Graph. Forum 18(3), 1–12 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Farnebäck, G.: Two-frame motion estimation based on polynomial expansion. In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA’03, pp. 363–370 (2003)

  11. Fišer, J., Jamriška, O., Lukáč, M., Shechtman, E., Asente, P., Lu, J., Sýkora, D.: StyLit: illumination-guided example-based stylization of 3D renderings. ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 92 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Girshick, A., Interrante, V., Haker, S., Lemoine, T.: Line direction matters: an argument for the use of principal directions in 3d line drawings. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Non-photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 43–52 (2000)

  13. Hertzmann, A., Jacobs, C.E., Oliver, N., Curless, B., Salesin, D.H.: Image analogies. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’01, pp. 327–340 (2001)

  14. Hertzmann, A., Zorin, D.: Illustrating smooth surfaces. Proc. SIGGRAPH 2000, 517–526 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kalnins, R.D., Markosian, L., Meier, B.J., Kowalski, M.A., Lee, J.C., Davidson, P.L., Webb, M., Hughes, J.F., Finkelstein, A.: WYSIWYG NPR: drawing strokes directly on 3D models. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 755–762 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kaplan, M., Gooch, B., Cohen, E.: Interactive artistic rendering. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Non-photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 67–74 (2000)

  17. Kass, M., Pesare, D.: Coherent noise for non-photorealistic rendering. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2011, pp. 30:1–30:6 (2011)

  18. Kim, Y., Yu, J., Yu, X., Lee, S.: Line-art illustration of dynamic and specular surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 27(5), 156 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Klein, A.W., Li, W., Kazhdan, M.M., Corrêa, W.T., Finkelstein, A., Funkhouser, T.A.: Non-photorealistic virtual environments. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’00, pp. 527–534 (2000)

  20. Kowalski, M.A., Markosian, L., Northrup, J., Bourdev, L.D., Barzel, R., Holden, L.S., Hughes, J.F.: Art-based rendering of fur, grass, and trees. Proc. SIGGRAPH 99, 433–438 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lake, A., Marshall, C., Harris, M., Blackstein, M.: Stylized rendering techniques for scalable real-time 3d animation. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Non-photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 13–20 (2000)

  22. Lee, H., Kwon, S., Lee, S.: Real-time pencil rendering. In: International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 37–45 (2006)

  23. Lu, J., Sander, P.V., Finkelstein, A.: Interactive painterly stylization of images, videos and 3D animations. In: Proceedings of I3D 2010 (2010)

  24. Meier, B.J.: Painterly rendering for animation. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’96, pp. 477–484 (1996)

  25. Niederreiter, H.: Random Number Generation and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia (1992)

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  26. Praun, E., Hoppe, H., Webb, M., Finkelstein, A.: Real-time hatching. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001, 579–584 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Salisbury, M.P., Anderson, S.E., Barzel, R., Salesin, D.H.: Interactive pen and ink illustration. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’94, pp. 101–108 (1994)

  28. Singh, M., Schaefer, S.: Suggestive hatching. In: Proceedings of Computational Aesthetics’10, pp. 25–32 (2010)

  29. Szirmay-Kalos, L.: Filtering and gradient estimation for distance fields by quadratic regression. Period. Polytech. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci. 59(4), 175–180 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Umenhoffer, T., Szécsi, L., Szirmay-Kalos, L.: Hatching for motion picture production. Comput. Graph. Forum 30(2), 533–542 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Vanderhaeghe, D., Barla, P., Thollot, J., Sillion, F.: Dynamic point distribution for stroke-based rendering. In: Proceedings of the Eurographics Symposium on Rendering, pp. 139–146 (2007)

  32. Vergne, R., Pacanowski, R., Barla, P., Granier, X., Schlick, C.: Light warping for enhanced surface depiction. ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 25 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Suarez, J., Belhadj, F., Boyer, V.: Real-time 3D rendering with hatching. Vis. Comput. 33(10), 1319–1334 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K–124124).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tamás Umenhoffer.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 202446 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Umenhoffer, T., Szirmay-Kalos, L., Szécsi, L. et al. An image-based method for animated stroke rendering. Vis Comput 34, 817–827 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00371-018-1531-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00371-018-1531-9

Keywords

  • NPR
  • Stroke rendering
  • Hatching