The Visual Computer

, Volume 32, Issue 6–8, pp 871–880

Physics-inspired controllable flame animation

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00371-016-1267-3

Cite this article as:
Kim, T., Lee, J. & Kim, CH. Vis Comput (2016) 32: 871. doi:10.1007/s00371-016-1267-3


We propose a novel method conceptualized from the properties of physics where in particular the shape of a flame is determined by temperature that enables a control mechanism for the intuitive shaping of a flame. We focused on a trade-off issue from computer graphics whereby the turbulent flow that expresses the characteristics of the flame has a tendency to shift continuously, whereas the velocity constraints that contain a fluid within a target shape have a tendency to force movement in a particular direction. Trade-off made it difficult for animation designers to maintain a flame within the intended target shape. This paper resolves the issue by enabling the flame to be controlled without any velocity constraints by using the following two techniques: First, we model the temperature and force of the explosion generated by the combustion of explosive gaseous fuel and apply it to certain regions. Second, we expand the space of the interface between the fuel and the burned products, classifying that space into four regions and controlling the target shape of the flame by delicate adjustments to the temperature in each region. Experiments show that the flame maintains the appearance of dynamic movement while preserving the detailed 3D shapes specified by the scene designers.


Flame animation Physics inspired Temperature control Fluid control 

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 23348 KB)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Research Foundation of Korea
  • NRF-2013R1A1A2011602, NRF-2014R1A2A2A01007143, NRF-2015R1A1A1A05001196, NRF-2015R1C1A2A01053543
Small and Medium Business Administration
  • S2172401

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Program in Visual Information ProcessingKorea UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Convegence SoftwareHallym UniversityChuncheonKorea

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