The Visual Computer

, Volume 31, Issue 10, pp 1395–1403 | Cite as

Real-time multiply recursive reflections and refractions using hybrid rendering

  • Per GanestamEmail author
  • Michael Doggett
Original Article


We present a new method for real-time rendering of multiple recursions of reflections and refractions. The method uses the strengths of real-time ray tracing for objects close to the camera, by storing them in a per-frame constructed bounding volume hierarchy (BVH). For objects further from the camera, rasterization is used to create G-buffers which store an image-based representation of the scene outside the near objects. Rays that exit the BVH continue tracing in the G-buffers’ perspective space using ray marching, and can even be reflected back into the BVH. Our hybrid renderer is to our knowledge the first method to merge real-time ray tracing techniques with image-based rendering to achieve smooth transitions from accurately ray-traced foreground objects to image-based representations in the background. We are able to achieve more complex reflections and refractions than existing screen space techniques, and offer reflections by off-screen objects. Our results demonstrate that our algorithm is capable of rendering multiple bounce reflections and refractions, for scenes with millions of triangles, at 720p resolution and above 30 FPS.


Hybrid rendering Real-time Ray tracing Rasterization Reflections Refractions 



We thank ELLIIT and Intel Visual Computing Institute for funding. Thanks to TurboSquid artist cjx3711 for the chess piece models.

Supplementary material

371_2014_1021_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (54.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (mp4 55931 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lund UniversityLundSweden

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