Building long-term relationships with virtual and robotic characters: the role of remembering
- 303 Downloads
With the recent advances, today people are able to communicate with embodied (virtual/robotic) entities using natural ways of communication. In order to use them in our daily lives, they need to be intelligent enough to make long-term relationships with us and this is highly challenging. Previous work on long-term interaction frequently reported that after the novelty effect disappeared, users’ interest into the interaction decreased with time. Our primary goal in this study was to develop a system that can still keep the attention of the users after the first interaction.
Incorporating the notion of time, we think that the key to long-term interaction is the recall of past memories during current conversation. For this purpose, we developed a long-term interaction framework with remembering and dialogue planning capability. In order to see the effect of remembering on users, we designed a tutoring application and measured the changes in social presence and task engagement levels according to the existence of memory. Different from previous work, users’ interest in our system did not decrease with time with the important contributions of remembering to the engagement level of users.
KeywordsLong-term relationships Long-term interaction Episodic memory Social presence
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Altmann, E., Gray, W.: Managing attention by preparing to forget. In: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, Cognitive Ergonomics, vol. 1, pp. 152–155 (2000) Google Scholar
- 2.Baylor, A.L., Kim, Y.: Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. Int. J. Artif. Intell. Ed. 15, 95–115 (2005) Google Scholar
- 6.Egges, A.: Real-time animation of interactive virtual characters. Ph.D. thesis, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (2006) Google Scholar
- 8.Harbers, M., van den Bosch, K., Meyer, J.J.: A methodology for developing self-explaining agents for virtual training. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS’09, vol. 2, pp. 1129–1130. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Richland (2009) Google Scholar
- 11.Kasap, Z., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: Towards episodic memory based long-term affective interaction with a human-like robot. In: IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), pp. 479–484. IEEE Press, New York (2010) Google Scholar
- 12.Kasap, Z., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: Long-term social interaction with an expressive robot. In: Computer Graphics International (2011) Google Scholar
- 13.Kidd, C., Breazeal, C.: Robots at home: understanding long-term human-robot interaction. Nice, France (2008) Google Scholar
- 17.Lombard, M., Ditton, T.B., Crane, D., Davis, B., Gil-Egui, G., Horvath, K.: Measuring presence: a literature-based approach to the development of a standardized paper-and-pencil instrument. In: IJsselsteijn, W., Freeman, J., Ridder, H. de (eds.) Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Presence (2000) Google Scholar
- 18.McAuley, E.: Psychometric properties of the intrinsic motivation inventory in a competitive sport setting: a confirmatory factor analysis. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 60, 48–58 (1989) Google Scholar
- 19.Nuxoll, A.M.: Enhancing intelligent agents with episodic memory. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA (2007). AAI3287596 Google Scholar
- 20.Saerbeck, M., Schut, T., Bartneck, C., Janse, M.D.: Expressive robots in education: varying the degree of social supportive behavior of a robotic tutor. In: Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI’10, pp. 1613–1622. ACM, New York (2010) Google Scholar
- 24.Tecuci, D., Porter, B.: A generic memory module for events. In: Proceedings to the 20th Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference (FLAIRS20), Key West, FL (2007) Google Scholar
- 25.Tulving, E.: Episodic and semantic memory. In: Tulving, E., Donaldson, W. (eds.) Organization of Memory, pp. 381–403. Academic Press, New York (1972) Google Scholar