Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 593–606 | Cite as

Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

  • T. Leipe
  • M. Naumann
  • F. Tauber
  • H. Radtke
  • R. Friedland
  • A. Hiller
  • H. W. Arz
Original

Abstract

This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical “anomalies” in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the provision of weather forecast data from the German Weather Service (DWD) and the kind assistance with laboratory work by Ines Scherff, Sibylle Fink, Anke Bender and Anne Köhler. Special thanks go to Prof. Caroline Slomp, Utrecht, Holland, for analyses of P speciation in a selected set of our samples. We are grateful to the reviewers and the editors for constructive and critical comments. The SECOS project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (http://bio-50.io-warnemuende.de/secos/). RF was partly funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research in the KÜNO Project MOSSCO (03F0740B), and by the BONUS-BaltCoast project (03F0717A). Supercomputing power was provided by HLRN (North-German Supercomputing Alliance).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with third parties.

References

  1. Beldowski J, Pempkowiak J (2003) Horizontal and vertical variabilities of mercury concentration and speciation in sediments of the Gdansk Basin, southern Baltic Sea. Chemosphere 52:645–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beldowski J, Pempkowiak J (2007) Mercury transformations in marine coastal sediments as derived from mercury concentration and speciation changes along source/sink transport pathway (southern Baltic). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72:370–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borg H, Jonsson P (1996) Large-scale metal distribution in Baltic Sea sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32:8–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruggeman J, Bolding K (2014) A general framework for aquatic biogeochemical models. Environmental Modelling and Software 61:249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burchard H, Bolding K (2002) GETM—A general estuarine transport model. Scientific documentation, tech Rept EUR 20253 ENGoogle Scholar
  6. Christiansen C, Edelvang K, Emeis K-C, Graf G, Jähmlich S, Kozuch J, Laima M, Leipe T, Löffler A, Lund-Hansen L-C, Miltner A, Pazdro K, Pempkowiak J, Shimmield G, Shimmield T, Smith J, Voss M, Witt G (2002) Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea, I: processes and mass estimates. Journal of Marine Systems 35:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conley DJ (1998) An interlaboratory comparison for the measurement of biogenic silica in sediments. Marine Chemistry 63:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darr A, Gogina M, Zettler ML (2014) Detecting hot-spots of bivalve biomass in the south-western Baltic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 134:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doerffer R (2014) Algorithm theoretical bases document (ATBD) for L2 processing of MERIS data of case 2 waters, 4th reprocessing. ESA 20140825, MERIS ATBD 2.312Google Scholar
  10. Emeis K-C, Christiansen C, Edelvang K, Jähmlich S, Kozuch J, Laima M, Leipe T, Lund-Hansen L-C, Löffler A, Miltner A, Pazdro K, Pempkowiak J, Pollehne F, Shimmield T, Voss M, Witt G (2002) Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea, II: synthesis of data on origin and properties of material. Journal of Marine Systems 35:151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Emelyanov EM (ed) (2002) Geology of the Gdansk Basin, Baltic Sea. Russian Academy of Sciences, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Kaliningrad, RussiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Emelyanov EM (2012) The distribution of organic carbon and composition of the carboniferous mud in the Baltic Sea. Adv Environm Res 27:111–138Google Scholar
  13. Emelyanov E, Christiansen C, Michelsen O (eds) (1995) Geology of the Bornholm Basin. Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Department of Earth SciencesGoogle Scholar
  14. Flemming BW, Delafontaine MT (2000) Mass physical properties of muddy intertidal sediments: some applications, misapplications and non-applications. Continental Shelf Research 20:1179–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flemming BW, Delafontaine MT (2016) Mass physical sediment properties. In: Kennish MJ (ed) Encyclopedia of estuaries. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 419–432. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8801-4_350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glockzin M, Zettler ML (2008) Spatial macrozoobenthic distribution patterns in relation to major environmental factors – a case study from the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Journal of Sea Research 59:144–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gogina M, Morys C, Forster S, Gräwe U, Friedland R, Zettler ML (2017) Towards benthic ecosystem functioning maps: quantifying bioturbation potential in the German part of the Baltic Sea. Ecological Indicators 73:574–588. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.10.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gräwe U, Naumann M, Mohrholz V, Burchard H (2015a) Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows into the Baltic Sea in December 2014. Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans 120:7676–7697. doi: 10.1002/2015JC011269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gräwe U, Holtermann P, Klingbeil K, Burchard H (2015b) Advantages of vertically adaptive coordinates in numerical models of stratified shelf seas. Ocean Modell 92:56–68. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. HELCOM (2007) Baltic Sea Action Plan. HELCOM Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting, 15 November 2007, Krakow, PolandGoogle Scholar
  21. HELCOM (2015) Updated fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5.5). Baltic Sea environment proceedings no 145. Helsinki commission, Helsinki, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Hofmeister R, Burchard H, Beckers J-M (2010) Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids for 3D numerical ocean models. Ocean Modell 33:70–86. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.00313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jilbert T, Slomp CP, Gustafsson BG, Boer W (2011) Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles. Biogeosciences 8:1699–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kersten M, Leipe T, Tauber F (2005) Storm disturbance of sediment contaminants at a hot-spot in the Baltic Sea assessed by 234Th radionuclide tracer profiles. Environmental Science & Technology 39:984–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klingbeil K, Burchard H (2013) Implementation of a direct nonhydrostatic pressure gradient discretisation into a layered ocean model. Ocean Modell 65:64–77. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klingbeil K, Mohammadi-Aragh M, Gräwe U, Burchard H (2014) Quantification of spurious dissipation and mixing – discrete variance decay in a finite-volume framework. Ocean Modell 81:49–64. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kube J (1996) The ecology of macrozoobenthos and sea ducks in the Pomeranian Bay. Institute of Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Marine Science Reports no 18Google Scholar
  28. Kuhrts C, Fennel W, Seifert T (2004) Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52:167–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lääne A, Pitkänen H, Arheimer B, Behrendt H, Jarosinski W, Sarmite L, Pachel K, Shekhovtsov A, Svendsen LM, Valatka S (2002) Evaluation of the implementation of the 1988 ministerial declaration regarding nutrient load reductions in the Baltic Sea catchment area. Finnish Marine Research 247:38–50Google Scholar
  30. Leipe T, Eidam J, Lampe R, Meyer H, Neumann T, Osadczuk A, Janke W, Puff T, Blanz T, Gingele FX, Dannenberger D, Witt G (1998) The Oder-lagoon, contributions to Holocene development and anthropogenic impact of the Oder estuary (in German). Institute of Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Marine Science Reports no 28Google Scholar
  31. Leipe T, Tauber F, Vallius H, Virtasalo J, Uścinowicz S, Kowalski N, Hille S, Lindgren S, Myllyvirta T (2011) Particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface sediments of the Baltic Sea. Geo-Marine Letters 31:175–188. doi: 10.1007/s00367-010-0223-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leipe T, Moros M, Kotilainen A, Vallius H, Kabel K, Endler M, Kowalski N (2013) Mercury in Baltic Sea sediments – natural background and anthropogenic impact. Chemie Erde (Geochemistry) 73:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Löffler A, Leipe T, Emeis KC (2000) The “fluffy layer” in the Pomeranian bight (western Baltic Sea): geochemistry, mineralogy and environmental aspects. Meyniana 52:85–100Google Scholar
  34. Lukawska-Matuszewska K, Bolalek J (2008) Spatial distribution of phosphorus forms in sediments in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea). Continental Shelf Research 28:977–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moros M, Andersen TJ, Schulz-Bull D, Häusler K, Bunke D, Snowball I, Kotilainen A, Zillen L, Jensen JB, Kabel K, Hand I, Leipe T, Lougheed BC, Wagner B, Arz HW (2017) Towards an event stratigraphy for Baltic Sea sediments deposited since AD 1900: approaches and challenges. Boreas 46:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mort HP, Slomp CP, Gustafsson BG, Andersen TJ (2010) Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74:1350–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Müller PJ, Schneider R (1993) An automated leaching method for the determination of opal in sediments and particulate matter. Deep-Sea Research Part I 40(3):425–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pitarch J, Volpe G, Colella S, Krasemann H, Santoleri R (2016) Remote sensing of chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea at basin scale from 1997 to 2012 using merged multi-sensor data. Ocean Science 12:379–389. doi: 10.5194/os-12-379-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Puttonen I, Mattila J, Jonsson P, Karlsson OM, Kohonen T, Kotilainen A, Lukkari K, Malmaeus JM, Rydin E (2014) Distribution and estimated release of sediment phosphorus in the northern Baltic Sea archipelagos. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 145:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Radtke H, Neumann T, Voss M, Fennel W (2012) Modeling pathways of riverine nitrogen and phosphorus in the Baltic Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans 117(C9):2156–2202. doi: 10.1029/2012JC008119 Google Scholar
  41. Ruttenberg KC (1992) Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 37:1460–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tauber F (2012) Seabed sediments in the German Baltic Sea (in German). 9 map sheets. Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg-RostockGoogle Scholar
  43. Tauber F, Emeis K-C (2005) Sediment mobility in the Pomeranian bight (Baltic Sea): a case study based on sidescan-sonar images and hydrodynamic modeling. Geo-Marine Letters 25:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tejakusuma IG (2004) Investigations into the hydrography and dynamics of suspended particulate matter and sediments in the Oder Lagoon, southern Baltic Sea. PhD Thesis, University of Greifswald, GreifswaldGoogle Scholar
  45. Uscinowicz S (ed) (2011) Geochemistry of Baltic Sea surface sediments. Polish Geological Institute & Ministry of the Environment, WarsawGoogle Scholar
  46. Vallius H (ed) (2007) Holocene sedimentary environment and sediment geochemistry of the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 45Google Scholar
  47. Voss M, Struck U (1997) Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes as indicator of eutrophication of the Oder River (Baltic Sea). Marine Chemistry 59:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zettler ML, Friedland R, Gogina M, Darr A (2017) Variation in benthic long-term data of transitional waters: is interpretation more than speculation? PloS One 12(4):e0175746. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175746 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Leipe
    • 1
  • M. Naumann
    • 1
  • F. Tauber
    • 1
  • H. Radtke
    • 1
  • R. Friedland
    • 1
  • A. Hiller
    • 1
  • H. W. Arz
    • 1
  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW)RostockGermany

Personalised recommendations