Zanclean/Piacenzian transition on Cyprus (SE Mediterranean): calcareous nannofossil evidence of sapropel formation

Abstract

Quantitative analyses of calcareous nannofossils in the sediments of Pissouri South section on the island of Cyprus have produced a paleoceanographic record reflecting the paleoclimatic conditions during the Zanclean/Piacenzian transition. Pissouri South cyclical lithological alternations between organic-rich laminated layers and grey marls reflect the Earth’s orbital precession. According to the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy which has been performed, the studied section is correlated with MNN14/15 and MNN16 calcareous nannofossil biozones and is astronomically dated between 4.065 and 3.217 Ma. Intervals of increased organic carbon content, along with the positive values of Florisphaera profunda, Helicosphaera sellii, Discoaster spp. and the subsequent increase of stratification S-index, correspond to the sapropel deposition during periods of wetter climate and intense continental runoff, especially from the river Nile. These layers alternate with grey marly intervals, featured by the increased values of small placoliths of Reticulofenestra and Gephyrocapsa species, which are indicative of eutrophic conditions during intense surface-water mixing. Our data support the prevalence of a generally warm phase characterized by the absence of high-frequency climate variations in the southeastern Mediterranean during the Zanclean/Piacenzian (Early/Late Pliocene) transition.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. Aubry MP (1984) Handbook of Cenozoic calcareous nannoplankton: book 1, Ortholithae (Discoaster). Micropal Press, New York, pp 1–263

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aubry MP (1988) Handbook of Cenozoic calcareous nannoplankton: book 2, Ortholithae (Holococcoliths, Ceratoliths, Ortholiths and other). Micropal Press, New York, pp 1–279

    Google Scholar 

  3. Aubry MP (1989) Handbook of Cenozoic calcareous nannoplankton: book 3, Ortholithae (Pentaliths and other), Heliolithae (Fasciculiths, Sphenoliths and others). Micropal Press, New York, pp 1–279

  4. Aubry MP (1990) Handbook of Cenozoic calcareous nannoplankton: book 4, Heliolithae (Helicoliths, Cribriliths, Lopadoliths and other). Micropal Press, New York, pp 1–381

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aubry MP (2014) Cenozoic Coccolithophores, Discoasterales. Micropal Press, New York, pp 1–384

    Google Scholar 

  6. Backman J, Raffi I, Rio D, Fornaciari E, Pälike H (2012) Biozonation and biochronology of Miocene through Pleistocene calcareous nannofossils from low and middle latitudes. Newslett Strat 45:221–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bar-Matthews M, Ayalon A, Kaufman A (2000) Timing and hydrological conditions of sapropel events in the eastern Mediterranean, as evident from speleothems, Soreq Cave, Israel. Chem Geol 169:145–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bartoli G, Hönisch B, Zeebe RE (2011) Atmospheric CO2 decline during the Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. Paleoceanography 26, PA4213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Beaufort L, De Garidel-Thoron T, Mix AC, Pisias NG (2001) ENSO-like forcing on oceanic primary production during the late Pleistocene. Science 293:2440–2444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Becker J, Lourens LJ, Hilgen FJ, Evd L, Kouwenhoven TJ, Reichart GJ (2005) Late Pliocene climate variability on Milankovitch to millennial time scales: a high-resolution study of MIS100 from the Mediterranean. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 228:338–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Beltran C, de Rafélis M, Minoletti F, Renard M, Sicre MA, Ezat U (2007) Coccolith δ 18O and alkenone records in middle Pliocene orbitally controlled deposits: high frequency temperature and salinity variations of sea surface water. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8. doi:10.1029/2006GC001483

  12. Bertoni C, Cartwright JA (2007) Major erosion at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis: evidence from the Levant Basin, eastern Mediterranean. Basin Res 19:1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bison KM, Versteegh GJM, Orszag-Sperber F, Rouchy JM, Willems H (2009) Palaeoenvironmental changes of the early Pliocene (Zanclean) in the eastern Mediterranean Pissouri Basin (Cyprus) evidenced from calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Mar Micropaleontol 73:49–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Blanc-Valleron MM, Rouchy JM, Pierre C, Badaut-Trauth D, Schuler M (1998) Evidence of Messinian non-marine deposition at site 968 (Cyprus Lower Slope). Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Res 160:437–445

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bouloubassi I, Rullkötter J, Meyers PA (1999) Origin and transformation of organic matter in Pliocene–Pleistocene Mediterranean sapropels: Organic geochemical evidence reviewed. Mar Geol 153:177–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bown PR, Young JR (1998) Techniques. In: Bown PR (ed) Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. Chapman and Hall, Kluwer Academic, pp 16–28

  17. Brierley C, Fedorov AV, Liu Z, Herbert TD, Lawrence KT, LaRiviere JP (2009) Greatly expanded tropical warm pool and weakened Hadley Circulation in the Early Pliocene. Science 323:1714–1718

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Capozzi R, Dinelli E, Negri A, Picotti V (2006) Productivity-generated annual laminae in mid-Pliocene sapropels deposited during precessionally forced periods of warmer Mediterranean climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 235:208–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Casford JSL, Rohling EJ, Abu-Zied RH, Fontanier C, Jorissen FJ, Leng MJ, Schmiedl G, Thomson J (2003) A dynamic concept for eastern Mediterranean circulation and oxygenation during sapropel formation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:103–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Castradori D (1993) Calcareous nannofossil and the origin of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels. Paleoceanography 8:459–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Castradori D (1998) Calcareous nannofossils in the basal Zanclean of the eastern Mediterranean Sea: remarks on paleoceanography and sapropel formation. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 160:113–123

    Google Scholar 

  22. Clark PU, Alley RB, Pollard D (1999) Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet influences on global climate change. Science 286:1104–1111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Coccioni R, Erba E, Premoli-Silva I (1992) Barremian–Aptian calcareous plankton biostratigraphy from the Gorgo a Cerbara section (Marche, central Italy) and implication for plankton evolution. Cret Res 13:457–467

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. De Kaenel E, Villa G (1996) Oligocene-Miocene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecology from the Iberia abyssal plain. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Results 149:79–105

    Google Scholar 

  25. De Lange GJ, Ten Haven HL (1983) Recent sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean. Nature 305:797–798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. De Lange GJ, Thomson J, Reitz A, Slomp CP, Principato MS, Erba E, Corselli C (2008) Synchronous basin-wide formation and redox-controlled preservation of a Mediterranean sapropel. Nat Geosci 1:606–610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. De Schepper S, Head MJ, Groeneveld J (2009) North Atlantic Current variability through marine isotope stage M2 (circa 3.3 Ma) during the mid-Pliocene. Paleoceanography 24, PA4206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. De Schepper S, Groeneveld J, Naafs BDA, Van Renterghem C, Hennissen J, Head MJ, Louwye S, Fabian K (2013) Northern Hemisphere glaciation during the globally warm early Late Pliocene. PLoS ONE 8(12):81508. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Di Stefano A, Sturiale G (2010) Refinements of calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary in the Mediterranean region. Geobios 449:5–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Di Stefano A, Verducci M, Lirer F, Ferraro L, Iaccarino SM, Hüsing SK, Hilgen FJ (2010) Paleoenvironmental conditions preceding the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Central Mediterranean: integrated data from the Upper Miocene Trave section (Italy). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 297:37–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Di Stefano A, Foresi LM, Incarbona A, Sproveri M, Vallefuoco M, Iorio M, Pelosi N, Di Stefano E, Sangiorgi P, Budillon F (2015) Mediterranean Coccolithophore ecobiostratigraphy since the penultimate Glacial (the last 145,000 years) and ecobioevent traceability. Mar Micropaleontol 115:24–38

  32. Dimiza MD, Triantaphyllou MV, Dermitzakis MD (2008) Seasonality and ecology of living coccolithophores in E. Mediterranean coastal environments (Andros Island, Middle Aegean Sea). Micropaleontology 54:159–175

    Google Scholar 

  33. Dimiza MD, Triantaphyllou MV, Malinverno E (2014) New evidence for the ecology of Helicosphaera carteri in polluted coastal environments (Elefsis Bay, Saronikos Gulf, Greece). J Nannoplankton Res 34:37–43

    Google Scholar 

  34. Dowsett HJ, Robinson MM, Haywood AM, Hill DJ, Dolan AM, Stoll DK, Chan WL, Abe-Ouchi A, Chandler MA, Rosenbloom NA, Otto-Bliesner BL, Bragg FJ, Lunt DJ, Foley KM, Riesselman CR (2012) Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models. Nat Clim Chang 2:365–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Driever BWM (1981) A quantitative study of Pliocene associations of Discoaster from the Mediterranean. Proc Kon Ned Akad Wet 84:437–455

    Google Scholar 

  36. Emeis KC, Weissert H (2009) Tethyan–Mediterranean organic carbon-rich sediments from Mesozoic black shales to sapropels. Sedimentology 56:247–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Emeis KC, Schulz HM, Struck U, Sakamoto T, Doose H, Erlenkeuser H, Howell M, Kroon D, Paterne M (1998) Stable isotope and alkenone temperature records of sapropels from sites 964 and 967: Constraining the physical environment of sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Res 60:309–331

    Google Scholar 

  38. Emeis KC, Struck U, Schulz HM, Bernasconi S, Sakamoto T, Martinez-Ruiz F (2000a) Temperature and salinity of Mediterranean Sea surface waters over the last 16,000 years: constraints on the physical environment of S1 sapropel formation based on stable oxygen isotopes and alkenone unsaturation ratios. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:259–280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Emeis KC, Sakamoto T, Wehausen R, Brumsack HJ (2000b) The sapropel record of the eastern Mediterranean Sea — results of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 160. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:371–395

  40. Emeis KC, Schulz H, Struck U, Rossignol-Strick M, Erlenkeuser H, Howell MW, Kroon D, Mackensen H, Ishizuka S, Oba T, Sakamoto T, Koizumi I (2003) Eastern Mediterranean surface water temperatures and d18O composition during deposition of sapropels in the late Quaternary. Paleoceanography 18(1):1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Eppley RW (1989) New production: history, methods, problems. In: Berger WH, Smetacek VS, Wefer G (eds) Productivity of the ocean: present and past. John Wiley, Hoboken, pp 85–97

    Google Scholar 

  42. Erba E (1994) Nannofossils and superplumes: the Early Aptian “nannoconid crisis”. Palaeoceanography 9:483–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Erba E (2004) Calcareous nannofossils and Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events. Mar Micropaleontol 52:85–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Erba E, Tremolada F (2004) Nannofossil carbonate fluxes during the Early Cretaceous: phytoplankton response to nutrification episodes, atmospheric CO2, and anoxia. Paleoceanography 19(1):PA1008 1–18

  45. Erba E, Bottini C, Weissert H, Keller CE (2010) Calcareous nannoplankton response to surface-water acidification around Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a. Science 329:428–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Fenner J, Di Stefano A (2004) Late quaternary oceanic fronts along Chatham Rise indicated by phytoplankton assemblages, and refined calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy for the Mid-Latitude SW Pacific. Mar Geol 205:59–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Flores JA, Sierro FJ, Glaçon G (1992) Calcareous plankton analysis in the pre-evaporitic sediments of the ODP site 654 (Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean). Micropaleontology 38:279–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Flores JA, Sierro FJ, Raffi I (1995) Evolution of the calcareous nannofossil assemblage as a response to the paleoceanographic changes in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific from 4 to 2 Ma (Leg 138, Sites 849 and 852). In: Pisias N et al (eds) Proceedings ODP, Science Results, Vol. 138. Ocean Drilling Program Publications, College Station, TX, pp 163–176

  49. Flores JA, Bárcena MA, Sierro FJ (2000) Ocean-surface and wind dynamics in the Atlantic Ocean off Northwest Africa during the last 140,000 years. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 161:459–478

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Flores JA, Marino M, Sierro FJ, Hodell DA, Charles CD (2003) Calcareous plankton dissolution pattern and coccolithophore assemblages during the last 600 kyr at ODP Site 1089 (Cape Basin, South Atlantic): paleoceanographic implications. Palaeogeog Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 196:409–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Flores JA, Sierro FJ, Filippelli GM, Bárcena MA, Pérez-Folgado M, Vázquez A, Utrilla R (2005) Surface water dynamics and phytoplankton communities during deposition of cyclic late Messinian sapropel sequences in the western Mediterranean. Mar Micropaleontol 56:50–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Foucault A, Mélières F (2000) Palaeoclimatic cyclicity in central Mediterranean Pliocene sediments: the mineralogical signal. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:311–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Gartner S (1988) Paleoceanography of the Mid-Pleistocene. Mar Micropaleontol 13:23–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Lykousis V, Arnaboldi M, Gaitani P, Meyers PA (2007) Organic geochemical evidence of abrupt late Glacial–Holocene climate changes in the North Aegean Sea. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 256:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Smith AG (2004) A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp 589

    Google Scholar 

  56. Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Schmitz MD, Ogg GM (2012) The geologic time scale 2012. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1144

    Google Scholar 

  57. Harrison RW, Newell WL, Batihanli H, Panayides I, Mc Geehin JP, Mahan SA, Ozhur A, Tsiolakis E, Necdet M (2004) Tectonic framework and Late Cenozoic tectonic history of the northern part of Cyprus: implications for earthquake hazards and regional tectonics. J Asian Earth Sci 23:191–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Haug GH, Tiedemann R (1998) Effect of the formation of the isthmus of Panama on Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Nature 393:673–676

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Haywood AM, Valdes PJ (2004) Modelling Pliocene warmth: contribution of atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 218:363–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Haywood AM, Hill DJ, Dolan AM, Otto-Bliesner BL, Bragg F, Chan WL, Chandler MA, Contoux C, Dowsett HJ, Jost A, Kamae Y, Lohmann G, Lunt DJ, Abe-Ouchi A, Pickering SJ, Ramstein G, Rosenbloom NA, Salzmann U, Sohl L, Stepanek C, Ueda H, Yan Q, Zhang Z (2013) Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project. Clim Past 9:191–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Head MJ, Gibbard PL (2005) Early-middle Pleistocene transitions: an overview and recommendation for the defining boundary. In: Head MJ, Gibbard PL (eds) Early-Middle Pleistocene Transitions: The Land–Ocean Evidence. Geological Society Special Publications, London 247:1–18

  62. Hilgen FJ (1991a) Astronomical calibration of Gauss to Matuyama sapropels in the Mediterranean and implication for geomagnetic polarity time scale. Earth Planet Sci Lett 104:226–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Hilgen FJ (1991b) Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Earth Planet Sci Lett 104:349–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Hilgen FJ, Krijgsman W, Langereis CG, Lourens LJ, Santarelli A, Zachariasse WJ (1995) Extending the astronomical (polarity) time scale into the Miocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 136:495–510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Hilgen FJ, Iaccarino S, Krijgsman W, Villa G, Langereis CG, Zachariasse WJ (2000) The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Messinian Stage (uppermost Miocene). Episodes 23:172–178

    Google Scholar 

  66. Hsü KJ, Montadert L, Bernoulli D, Cita MB, Erickson A, Garrison RE, Kidd RB, Melieres F, Müller C, Wright R (1977) History of the Mediterranean salinity crisis. Nature 267:399–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kallel N, Paterne M, Labeyrie L, Duplessy JC, Arnold M (1997) Temperature and salinity records of the Tyrrhenian Sea during the last 18,000 years. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 135:97–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Kallel N, Duplessy JC, Labeyrie L, Fontugne M, Paterne M, Montacer M (2000) Mediterranean pluvial periods and sapropel formation over the last 200,000 years. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 157:45–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Katsouras G, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Triantaphyllou MV, Roussakis G, Lykousis V (2010) Organic carbon distribution and isotopic composition in three records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Holocene. Org Geochem 41:935–939

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Kouli K, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Triantaphyllou MV, Chr I, Katsouras G, Roussakis G, Lykousis V (2012) Late postglacial paleoenvironmental change in the northeastern Mediterranean region: combined palynological and molecular biomarker evidence. Quat Internat 261:118–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Kouwenhoven TJ, Morigi C, Negri A, Giunta S, Krijgsman W, Rouchy JM (2006) Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Mar Micropaleontol 60:17–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Krijgsman W, Blanc-Valleron MM, Flecker R, Hilgen FJ, Kouwenhoven TJ, Merle D, Orszag-Sperber F, Rouchy JM (2002) The onset of the Messinian salinity crisis in the eastern Mediterranean (Pissouri Basin, Cyprus). Earth Planet Sci Let 194:299–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Kroon D, Alexander I, Little M, Lourens LJ, Matthewson A, Robertson AHF, Sakamoto T (1998) Oxygen isotope and sapropel stratigraphy in the Eastern Mediterranean during the last 3.2 million years. Proc ODP 160:181–189

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kuhnt T, Schmiedl G, Ehrmann W, Hamann Y, Andersen N (2008) Stable isotopic composition of Holocene benthic foraminifers from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Past changes in productivity and deep water oxygenation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 268:106–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Langereis CG, Hilgen FJ (1991) The Rossello composite: a Mediterranean and global reference section for the Early to early Late Pliocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 104:211–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. LaRiviere JP, Ravelo AC, Crimmins A, Dekens PS, Ford HL, Lyle M, Wara MW (2012) Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing. Nature 486:97–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Laskar J, Robutel P, Joutel F, Gastineau M, Correia ACM, Levrard B (2004) A long term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astron Astrophys 428:261–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Legendre L, Le Fevre J (1989) Hydrodynamical singularities as controls of recycled versus export production in oceans. In: Berger WH, Smetacek VS, Wefer G (eds) Productivity of the ocean: present and past. John Wiley, Hoboken, pp 49–63

    Google Scholar 

  79. Lisiecki LE, Raymo ME (2005) A Pliocene–Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography 20, PA1003

    Google Scholar 

  80. Lisiecki LE, Raymo ME (2007) Plio–Pleistocene climate evolution: trends and transitions in glacial cycle dynamics. Quat Sci Rev 26:56–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Lourens LJ, Hilgen FJ, Gudjonsson L, Zachariasse WJ (1992) Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene astronomically forced sea surface productivity and temperature variations in the Mediterranean. Mar Micropaleontol 19:49–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Lourens LJ, Antonarakou A, Hilgen FJ, Van Hoof AAM, Vergnaud-Grazzini C, Zachariasse WJ (1996) Evaluation of the Plio–Pleistocene astronomical timescale. Paleoceanography 11(4):391–413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Lourens LJ, Hilgen FJ, Shackleton NJ, Laskar J, Wilson D (2004) Chapter 21: The Neogene Period. In: Gradstein F, Ogg I, Smith A (eds) A geological timescale 2004. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp 409–444

    Google Scholar 

  84. Malinverno E, Triantaphyllou MV, Stavrakakis S, Ziveri P, Lykousis V (2009) Seasonal and spatial variability of coccolithophore export production at the South-Western margin of Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). Mar Micropaleontol 71:131–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Marlow JR, Lange CB, Wefer G, Rosell-Melé A (2000) Upwelling intensification as part of the Plio–Pleistocene climate transition. Science 290:2288–2291

    Google Scholar 

  86. Martini E (1971) Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton zonation. In: Farinacci A (ed), Proc II Planktonic Conf Roma, pp 739–785

  87. Mc Callum JE, Robertson AHF (1995) Sedimentology of two fan-delta systems in the Pliocene–Pleistocene of the Mesaoria Basin, Cyprus. Sed Geol 98:215–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Meyers PA (2006) Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic similarities between Mediterranean sapropels and Cretaceous black shales. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 235:305–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Meyers PA, Negri A (2003) Paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic records in Mediterranean sapropels and Mesozoic black shales. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:1–480

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Mitchell RN, Bice DB, Montanari A, Cleaveland L, Christianson KT, Coccioni R, Hinnov LA (2008) Oceanic anoxic cycles? Orbital prelude to the Bonarelli Level (OAE2). Earth Planet Sci Lett 267:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Molfino B, McIntyre A (1990) Precessional forcing of nutricline dynamics in the equatorial Atlantic. Science 249:766–769

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Morigi C, Negri A, Giunta S, Kouwenhoven T, Krijgsman W, Blanc-Valleron MM, Orszag-Sperber F, Rouchy JM (2007) Integrated quantitative biostratigraphy of the latest Tortonian–early Messinian Pissouri section (Cyprus): An evaluation of calcareous plankton bioevents. Geobios 40:267–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Müller C (1985) Late Miocene to recent Mediterranean biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments based on calcareous nannoplankton. In: Stanley J, Wezel FC (eds) Geological evolution of the Mediterranean Basin. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 471–485

    Google Scholar 

  94. Naafs BDA, Stein R, Hefter J, Khélifi N, De Schepper S, Haug GH (2010) Late Pliocene changes in the North Atlantic Current. Earth Planet Sci Lett 298:434–442

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Negri A, Giunta S (2001) Calcareous nannofossil paleoecology in the sapropel S1 of the eastern Ionian Sea: paleoceanographic implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 169:101–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Negri A, Villa G (2000) Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, biochronology and paleoecology at the Tortonian/Messinian boundary of the Faneromeni section (Crete). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 156:195–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Negri A, Capotondi L, Keller J (1999a) Calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and oxygen isotopes in the late Quaternary sapropels of the Ionian Sea. Mar Geol 157:89–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Negri A, Giunta S, Hilgen FJ, Krijgsman W, Vai GB (1999b) Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the M. del Casino section (northern Apennines, Italy) and paleoceanographic conditions at times of late Miocene sapropel formation. Mar Micropaleontol 36:13–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Negri A, Cobianchi M, Luciani V, Fraboni R, Milani A, Claps M (2003) Tethyan Cenomanian pelagic rhythmic sedimentation and Pleistocene Mediterranean sapropels: is the biotic signal comparable? Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:373–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Okada H, Honjo S (1973) The distribution of ocean coccolithophorids in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Res 20:355–374

    Google Scholar 

  101. Okada H, McIntyre A (1979) Seasonal distribution of modern coccolithophorids in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Mar Biol 54:319–328

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Pagani M, Liu Z, LaRiviere J, Ravelo AC (2009) High Earth-system climate sensitivity determined from Pliocene carbon dioxide concentrations. Nat Geosci 3:27–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Palumbo E, Flores JA, Perugia C, Petrillo Z, Voelker AHL, Amore FO (2013) Millennial scale coccolithophore paleoproductivity and surface water changes between 445 and 360 ka (Marine Isotope Stages 12/11) in the Northeast Atlantic. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 383–384:27–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Patruno S, Triantaphyllou MV, Erba E, Dimiza MD, Bottini C, Kaminski MA (2015) The Barremian and Aptian stepwise development of the ‘Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a’ (OAE 1a) crisis: Integrated benthic and planktic high-resolution palaeoecology along the Gorgo a Cerbara stratotype section (Umbria–Marche Basin, Italy). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 424:147–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Payne AS, Robertson AHF (1995) Neogene supra-subduction zone extension in the Polis graben system, West Cypus, J. Geol Soc London 152:613–628

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Perch-Nielsen K (1985) Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils. In: Bolli HM, Saunders JB, Perch-Nielsen K (eds) Plankton stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp 427–555

    Google Scholar 

  107. Raffi I, Backman J, Fornaciari E, Pälike H, Rio D, Lourens L, Hilgen F (2006) A review of calcareous nannofossil astrobiochronology encompassing the past 25 million years. Quat Sci Rev 25:3113–3137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Ravelo AC, Billups K, Dekens PS, Herbert TD, Lawrence KT (2007) On to the ice ages: proxy evidence for the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. In: Williams M, Haywood AM, Gregory FJ, Schmidt DN (eds) Deep-time perspectives on climate change: marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. The Micropalaeontological Society, Spec Publ Geol Soc, London, pp 563–573

    Google Scholar 

  109. Rio D, Raffi I, Villa G (1990) Pliocene Pleistocene calcareous nannofossils distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. Proc Ocean Drill Program Sci Res 107:513–533

    Google Scholar 

  110. Robertson AHF, Eaton S, Follows EJ, McCallum JE (1991) The role of local tectonics versus global sea-level change in the Neogene evolution of the Cyprus active margin. Spec Publ Intern Assoc Sedimentol 12:331–369

    Google Scholar 

  111. Rohling EJ (1994) Review and new aspects concerning the formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropels. Mar Geol 122:1–28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Rohling EJ, Hilgen FJ (1991) The eastern Mediterranean climate at times of sapropel formation: a review. Geol Mijn 70:253–264

    Google Scholar 

  113. Rohling EJ, Cane TR, Cooke S, Sprovieri M, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Schiebel R, Kroon D, Jorissen FJ, Lorre A, Kemp AES (2002) African monsoon variability during the previous interglacial maximum. Earth Planet Sci Lett 202:61–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Rohling EJ, Abu-Zied RH, Casford JSL, Hayes A, Hoogakker BAA (2009) The marine environment: present and past. In: Woodward JC (ed) The Physical geography of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 33–67

    Google Scholar 

  115. Rossignol-Strick M (1983) African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation. Nature 304:46–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Rossignol-Strick M (1985) Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 49:237–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Roth PH, Coulbourn WT (1982) Floral and dissolution patterns of coccoliths in surface sediments of the North Pacific. Mar Micropaleontol 7:1–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Rouchy JM, Orszag-Sperber F, Blanc-Valleron MM, Pierre C, Rivière M, Combourieu Nebout N, Panayides I (2001) Paleoenvironmental changes at the Messinian–Pliocene boundary in the eastern Mediterranean (Southern Cyprus basins): significance of the Messinian Lago-Mare. Sed Geol 145:93–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Ryan WBF, Cita MB (1977) Ignorance concerning episodes of ocean-wide stagnation. Mar Geol 23:197–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Schirmer W (2000) Neogene submarine relief and Troodos uplift in southeastern Cyprus. In: Panayides I, Xenophontos C, Malpas J (eds), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Geology of the Eastern Mediterranean, pp 125–134

  121. Schmiedl G, Kuhnt T, Ehrmann W, Emeis KC, Hamann Y, Kotthoff U, Dulski P, Pross J (2010) Climatic forcing of eastern Mediterranean deep-water formation and benthic ecosystems during the past 22,000 years. Quat Sci Rev 29:3006–3020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Sierro FJ, Flores JC, Civis J, González -Delgado JA, Francés G (1993) Late Miocene globorotaliid event-stratigraphy and biogeography in the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean. Mar Micropal 21:143–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Sierro FJ, Flores JC, Francés G, Vazquez A, Utrilla R, Zamarrenõ I, Erlenkeuser H, Barcena MA (2003) Orbitally-controlled oscillations in planktic communities and cyclic changes in western Mediterranean hydrography during the Messinian. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 190:289–316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Soria JM, Caracuel JE, Corbì H, Dinarès-Turell J, Lancis C, Tent-Manclùs J, Yébenes A (2008) The Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain):implications for the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean margins. Stratigraphy 5:259–265

    Google Scholar 

  125. Sprovieri R, Di Stefano E, Incarbona A, Oppo DW (2006) Suborbital climate variability during Marine Isotopic Stage 5 in the central Mediterranean basin: evidence from calcareous plankton record. Quat Sci Rev 25:2332–2342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Stow DAV, Braakenburg NE, Xenophontos C (1995) The Pissouri Basin fan-delta complex, southwestern Cyprus. Sed Geol 98:245–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Street C, Bown PR (2000) Paleobiogeography of Early Cretaceous (Berriasian–Barremian) calcareous nannoplankton. Mar Micropaleontol 39:265–291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Suc JP, Bertini A, Combourieu-Nebout N, Diniz F, Leroy S, Russo-Ermolli E, Zheng Z, Bessais E, Ferrier J (1995) Structure of West Mediterranean and climate since 5.3 Ma. Acta Zool Cracov 38:3–16

    Google Scholar 

  129. Thunell R, Rio D, Sprovieri R, Raffi I (1991a) Limestone-marl couplets: origin of the early Pliocene Trubi Marls in Calabria, southern Italy. J Sed Petrol 61:1109–1122

    Google Scholar 

  130. Thunell R, Rio D, Sprovieri R, Vergnaud-Grazzini C (1991b) An overview of the post-Messinian paleoenvironmental history of the western Mediterranean. Paleoceanography 6:143–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Triantaphyllou MV (2014) Coccolithophore assemblages during the Holocene Climatic Optimum in the NE Mediterranean (Aegean and northern Levantine Seas, Greece): paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications. Quat Int 345:56–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Triantaphyllou MV, Dimiza MD, Dermitzakis MD (2004) Syracosphaera halldalii and Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa life-cycle association and relevant taxonomic remarks. Micropaleontology 50:121–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Triantaphyllou MV, Antonarakou A, Kouli K, Dimiza M, Kontakiotis G, Papanikolaou M, Ziveri P, Mortyn G, Lianou V, Lykousis V, Dermitzakis MD (2009a) Late Glacial–Holocene ecostratigraphy of the south-eastern Aegean Sea, based on plankton and pollen assemblages. Geo-Mar Lett 29:249–267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Triantaphyllou MV, Ziveri P, Gogou A, Marino G, Lykousis V, Bouloubassi I, Emeis KC, Kouli K, Dimiza M, Rosell-Mele A, Papanikolaou M, Katsouras G, Nunez N (2009b) Late Glacial–Holocene climate variability at the south-eastern margin of the Aegean Sea. Mar Geol 266:182–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Triantaphyllou MV, Antonarakou A, Drinia H, Dimiza MD, Kontakiotis G, Tsiolakis E, Theodorou G (2010) High-resolution biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the early Pliocene succession of Pissouri Basin (Cyprus island). Bull Geol Soc Greece XLIII:763–772

    Google Scholar 

  136. Triantaphyllou MV, Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Dimiza MD, Kouli K, Roussakis G, Kotthoff U, Emeis KC, Papanikolaou M, Athanasiou M, Parinos K, Ioakim C, Lykousis V (2013) Evidence for a warm and humid Mid-Holocene episode in the Aegean and northern Levantine Seas (Greece, NE Mediterranean). Reg Environ Chang 14:1697–1712

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Vázque A, Utrilla R, Zamarrennõ I, Sierro FJ, Flores JA, Francés G (2000) Precession-related sapropels of the Messinian Sorbas Basin (south Spain): paleoenvironmental significance. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:353–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Wade BS, Bown PR (2006) Calcareous nannofossils in extreme environments: the Messinian salinity Crisis, Polemi Basin, Cyprus. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 233:271–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Wang P, Tian J, Lourens LJ (2010) Obscuring of long eccentricity cyclicity in Pleistocene oceanic carbon isotope records. Earth Planet Sci Lett 290:319–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Warning B, Brumsack HJ (2000) Trace metal signatures of eastern Mediterranean sapropels. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:293–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Waters JV, Jones SJ, Armstrong HA (2010) Climatic controls on late Pleistocene alluvial fans, Cyprus. In: Wilford D, Nichols G, Giles P (eds), Alluvial fan research and management: from reconstructing past environments to identifying the contemporary hazards. Geomorphology 115:228–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Ziveri P, Baumann KH, Böckel B, Bollmann J, Young J (2004) Biogeography of selected coccolithophores in the Atlantic Ocean, from Holocene sediments. In: Thierstein H, Young J (eds) Coccolithophores: from molecular processes to global impact. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 403–428

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work has been made possible thanks to the financial support provided by ΕU EraNet/Marinera Medecos project and University of Athens, SARG 70/4/11078. Field work funding has been provided by Research Projects 70/3/7093 and 70/4/3570 financed by Cyprus Geological Survey and University of Athens, SARG. We are grateful to Dr. Efthimios Tsiolakis (Geological Survey of Cyprus) for his warm support during the field work. Critical comments by Stefano Patruno, Agata Di Stefano, and the journal editors have proved invaluable in improving the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Athanasiou.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(PDF 43 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Athanasiou, M., Triantaphyllou, M.V., Dimiza, M.D. et al. Zanclean/Piacenzian transition on Cyprus (SE Mediterranean): calcareous nannofossil evidence of sapropel formation. Geo-Mar Lett 35, 367–385 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-015-0414-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Black Shale
  • Photic Zone
  • Calcareous Nannofossil
  • Laminate Layer
  • Deep Chlorophyll Maximum