A comprehensive survey of AR/MR-based co-design in manufacturing

  • Peng Wang
  • Shusheng ZhangEmail author
  • Mark Billinghurst
  • Xiaoliang BaiEmail author
  • Weiping He
  • Shuxia Wang
  • Mengmeng Sun
  • Xu Zhang
Original Article


For more than 2 decades, Augmented Reality (AR)/Mixed Reality (MR) has received an increasing amount of attention by researchers and practitioners in the manufacturing community, because it has applications in many fields, such as product design, training, maintenance, assembly, and other manufacturing operations. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive review of AR-based co-design in manufacturing. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of existing research, projects, and technical characteristics between 1990 and 2017 in the domain of co-design based on AR technology. Among these papers, more than 90% of them were published between 2000 and 2017, and these recent relevant works are discussed at length. The paper provides a comprehensive academic roadmap and useful insight into the state-of-the-art of AR-based co-design systems and developments in manufacturing for future researchers all over the world. This work will be useful to researchers who plan to utilize AR as a tool for design research.


Augmented reality (AR) AR-based co-design Collaborative work Virtual reality (VR) CAD 



This research was sponsored by the civil aircraft special project (MJZ-2017-G73). Besides, we would like to appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions for enhancing this paper. Specifically, Mark Billinghurst has checked the English of an early version, and his constructive comments are gratefully acknowledged which have helped the author to improve the paper. Moreover, we thank Dechuan Han and Mengmeng Sun for filtering and downloading papers. We also thank other schoolfellows, including Jinping Chen, Qian Cheng, Li Zhang, Yongxing Chen, Zhuang Chang, Yue Wang, and Xiaokun Zhang for their invaluable discussion, criticism, and advice for further improving this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng Wang
    • 1
  • Shusheng Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mark Billinghurst
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoliang Bai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Weiping He
    • 1
  • Shuxia Wang
    • 1
  • Mengmeng Sun
    • 1
  • Xu Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Contemporary Designing and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Cyber-Physical Interaction LabNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Empathic Computing LabUniversity of South AustraliaMawson LakesAustralia

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