Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 189, Issue 3–4, pp 441–450 | Cite as

Pheomelanin synthesis varies with protein food abundance in developing goshawks

  • Ismael GalvánEmail author
  • Alberto Jorge
  • Jan T. Nielsen
  • Anders P. Møller
Original Paper


The accumulation of the amino acid cysteine in lysosomes produces toxic substances, which are avoided by a gene (CTNS) coding for a transporter that pumps cystine out of lysosomes. Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles that synthesize melanins, the most widespread pigments in animals. The synthesis of the orange melanin, termed pheomelanin, depends on cysteine levels because the sulfhydryl group is used to form the pigment. Pheomelanin synthesis may, therefore, be affected by cysteine homeostasis, although this has never been explored in a natural system. As diet is an important source of cysteine, here we indirectly tested for such an effect by searching for an association between food abundance and pheomelanin content of feathers in a wild population of Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. As predicted on the basis that CTNS expression may inhibit pheomelanin synthesis and increase with food abundance as previously found in other strictly carnivorous birds, we found that the feather pheomelanin content in nestling goshawks, but not in adults, decreased as the abundance of prey available to them increased. In contrast, variation in the feather content of the non-sulphurated melanin form (eumelanin) was only explained by sex in both nestlings and adults. We also found that the feather pheomelanin content of nestlings was negatively related to that of their mothers, suggesting a relevant environmental influence on pheomelanin synthesis. Overall, our findings suggest that variation in pheomelanin synthesis may be a side effect of the maintenance of cysteine homeostasis. This may help explaining variability in the expression of pigmented phenotypes.


Animal pigmentation Cysteine homeostasis Melanogenesis Phenotypic plasticity Raptors 



We thank Rafael Palomo Santana for giving us permit to reproduce his goshawk photographs in Fig. 1. IG is supported by a Ramón y Cajal fellowship (RYC-2012–10237) and the project CGL2015-67796-P, both from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ecología EvolutivaEstación Biológica de Doñana, CSICSevillaSpain
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Técnicas Analíticas No DestructivasMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSICMadridSpain
  3. 3.SindalDenmark
  4. 4.Ecologie Systématique EvolutionUniversité Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-SaclayOrsay CedexFrance

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