Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii, can recover from 36 h of anoxia and their systemic hearts continue to work throughout the exposure. Recent work demonstrates that glycogen stores are utilized in the E. stoutii heart during anoxia but that these are not sufficient to support the measured rate of ATP production. One metabolic fuel that could supplement glycogen during anoxia is glycerol. This substrate can be derived from lipid stores, stored in the heart, or delivered via the blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of glycerol on the contractile function of the excised E. stoutii heart during anoxia exposure. When excised hearts, perfused with metabolite free saline (mf-saline), were exposed to anoxia for 12 h, there was no difference in heart rate, pressure generation (max-dP), rate of contraction (max-dP/dtsys), or rate of relaxation (max-dP/dtdia) compared to hearts perfused with mf-saline in normoxia. However, hearts perfused with saline containing glycerol (gly-saline) in anoxia had higher max-dP, max-dP/dtsys, and max-dP/dtdia than hearts perfused with mf-saline in anoxia. Tissue levels of glycerol increased when hearts were perfused with gly-saline in normoxia, but not when perfused with gly-saline in anoxia. Anoxia exposure did not affect the activities of triglyceride lipase, glycerol kinase, or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This study suggests that glycerol stimulates cardiac function in the hagfish but that it is not derived from stored lipids. How glycerol may stimulate contraction is not known. This could be as an energy substrate, as an allosteric factor, or a combination of the two.
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The Authors would like to thank C.R. Freedman and Dr. D.S. Fudge for comments on an earlier draft, as well as Dr. I. Lorenzen-Schmidt and A. Pierce for technical assistance.
This work was supported by an operating grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to W.G.P, and a Discovery Grant, and Discovery Accelerator Supplement, from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to T.E.G.
Communicated by H. V. Carey.
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Gatrell, L.A., Farhat, E., Pyle, W.G. et al. Contractile function of the excised hagfish heart during anoxia exposure. J Comp Physiol B 189, 199–211 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-019-01208-w