Animal movements are highly constrained by morphology and energetics. In addition, predictable bodily damage can constrain locomotion even further. For example, for animals moving on land, losing legs may impose additional costs. We tested if losing legs affects the distance travelled over time (endurance) and the metabolic costs of locomotion (oxygen consumption) in Nelima paessleri harvestmen. These arachnids voluntary releases legs (i.e., autotomy) in response to predation attempts. We used flow-through respirometry as animals moved on a treadmill inside a sealed chamber. We found that endurance decreased gradually with an increasing number of legs lost. Interestingly, oxygen consumption increased only for harvestmen that lost three legs, but not for individuals that lost only a single leg. These results have different ecological and evolutionary implications. Reduced endurance may impair an animal’s ability to continue moving away from potential predators, while increased oxygen consumption makes movement costlier. Our findings suggest that individuals have a threshold number of legs that can be lost before experiencing measurable energetic consequences. Overall, our findings illustrate how animals respond to morphological modifications (i.e., damage) that affect the physiology of locomotion.
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The complete dataset is available on Dryad (https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.76hdr7ssv). All individuals were deposited as voucher specimens at the Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California—Berkeley.
Code is available upon request to the corresponding author.
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We are grateful to T. Daluro for collecting some of the field data, and her support during lab work. We are grateful with R.J. Full for his input on the design of this project, as well as for access to the open-flow respirometry at the Center for Integrative Biomechanics in Education and Research (CiBER) at UC Berkeley. T. Libby wrote the custom MATLAB script use to measure oxygen concentration. A. Saintsing provided extensive support for lab work. Finally, we are grateful to E. Lacey, R. Gillespie, A. Kamath, M. Raboin, members of the Elias Lab, and two anonymous reviewers for their feedback and input on previous versions of this manuscript. This research was done in compliance with institutional animal care protocols.
Funding for the project was provided by the 2018 program Student Mentoring and Research Teams (SMART) from UC Berkeley’s Graduate Division to I.E. and V.E., the Margaret C. Walker Fund for teaching and research in systematic entomology from the Essig Museum of Entomology at UC Berkeley to I.E, and a grant from the National Science Foundation for D.O.E. (IOS-1556421).
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Escalante, I., Ellis, V.R. & Elias, D.O. Leg loss decreases endurance and increases oxygen consumption during locomotion in harvestmen. J Comp Physiol A 207, 257–268 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00359-020-01455-1
- Locomotion energetics