Neuromodulation of insect motion vision
Insects use vision to choose from a repertoire of flexible behaviors which they perform for survival. Decisions for behavioral plasticity are achieved through the neuromodulation of sensory processes, including motion vision. Here, we briefly review the anatomy of the insect motion vision system. Next, we review the neuromodulatory influences on motion vision. Serotonin modulates peripheral visual processing, whereas octopamine modulates all stages of visual processing tested to date. The physiological and behavioral states that elicit neuromodulation of motion vision include locomotion, changes in internal physiological state such as hunger, and changes in the external environment such as the presence of additional sensory cues. The direction of influence between these states and neuromodulators remains unknown. The influence of neuromodulators on motion vision circuitry has been revealed mostly through pharmacological application, which broadcasts widely with unnatural spatiotemporal dynamics. Thus, insight from this method is limited. Aminergic neurons likely act in local hierarchical fashion rather than globally as a group. As genetic tools advance in Drosophila, future work restricting the experimental focus to subpopulations of modulatory neurons will provide insight into the local functional modifications of visual circuits by interacting neuromodulators.
KeywordsOctopamine Visual circuits Drosophila Serotonin Multi-modal integration
Chlordimeform, octopamine receptor agonist
Lobula columnar cells, a class of VPNs
Lobula plate tangential cells, a class of VPNs
- T4 and T5
Columnar retinotopic neuron classes with dendrites in the medulla (T4) and lobula (T5) and axon terminals in the lobula plate
Neuronal tyrosine decarboxylase 2, denotes a Gal4 line that labels octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons
Visual projection neurons
This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (F31EY029599 to K.Y.C.) and the National Science Foundation (IOS-1455869 to M.A.F.).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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