Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 189, Issue 9, pp 685–692 | Cite as

Gradual frequency rises in interacting black ghost knifefish, Apteronotus albifrons

  • P. Serrano-Fernández
Original Paper


The present paper highlights the relationship between social status and production of gradual frequency rises in interacting Apteronotus albifrons. The gradual frequency rise production was mathematically inferred and a discrete classification deliberately avoided. The results showed little gradual frequency rise production before the hierarchy settlement. Afterwards, only the dominant fish kept this gradual frequency rise production at low levels, while the subdominant fish drastically increased it in all following interaction contexts. The hypothesis of gradual frequency rises being involved in communication as submissive signals was thus strengthened.


Apteronotus Electric fish Electrocommunication EOD GFR 



electric organ discharge


frequency modulation


gradual frequency rise


interquartile range


jamming avoidance response



I wish to thank the whole team of the Zoology Institute of the University of Regensburg (Germany), where this research took place, for their friendly help . The experiments comply with the Principles of animal care, publication No. 86-23, revised 1985 of the National Institute of Health and also with the current laws of Germany and Spain.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deptartment of Clinical Specialties, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AlcaláAlcalá de HenaresSpain
  2. 2.Proteome CenterUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

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