Skip to main content

ROsWeL Workflow Language: A Declarative, Resource-oriented Approach


Well defined business processes are a crucial success factor for deploying SOA/SOKU architectures. In this paper, the declarative business process description language—ROsWeL—which supports applications compatible with ROA, is discussed. ROsWeL provides a declarative, reliable and semi-automatic composition of RESTful web services, enriched by the knowledge representation. The paper discusses benefits of ROsWeL, and presents an example of a simple workow that captures essential ROsWeL features.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Apache ODE RESTful Extensions,

  2. JOpera for Eclipse,

  3. Site of Apache ODE project,

  4. Windows Workow Foundation in .NET4.

  5. Qwika home page,, 2010.

  6. Youtube web page,, 2010.

  7. Allamaraju S.: RESTful web services cookbook. O’Reilly Sebastopol, California (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barros, A., Dumas, M. and Oaks, P., “Standards for web service choreography and orchestration: Status and perspectives,” in Business Process Management Workshops (Bussler, C. and Haller, A. eds.), vol. 3812 of LNCS, pp. 61–74, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2006. 10.1007/11678564_7.

  9. Blow, M., Goland, Y., Kloppmann, M., Leymann, F., Pfau, G., Roller, D. and Rowley, M., “Bpelj: Bpel for java,” BEA and IBM, March 2004.

  10. Brzeziński, J., Danilecki, A., Flotyński, J., Kobusińska, A. and Stroiński, A., “Workow engine supporting RESTful web services,” in ACIIDS (1) (Nguyen, N.-T., Kim, C. and Janiak, A. eds.), vol. 6591 of LNCS, pp. 377–385. Springer, 2011.

  11. Cabrera, L. F. and Kurt, C., Web services architecture and its specifications: essentials for understanding WS-*, Microsoft Press, 2005.

  12. Curbera, F., Duftler, M., Khalaf, R. and Lovell, D., “Bite: Workow composition for the web,” LNCS Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2007, 4749/2007, 2007.

  13. Decker, G., Kopp, O., Leymann, F. and Weske, M., “Bpel4chor: Extending bpel for modeling choreographies,” in ICWS, pp. 296–303, IEEE Computer Society, 2007.

  14. Fahringer, T., Pilana, S. and Villazon, A., “A-gwl: Abstract grid workow language," in Computational Science - ICCS 2004 (Bubak, M., Van Albada, G., Sloot, P. and Dongarra, J. eds.), vol. 3038 of LNCS, pp. 42–49, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004. 10.1007/978-3-540-24688-6_7.

  15. Fielding, R. T., “Architectural styles and the design of network-based software architectures,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine,, 2000.

  16. Guan, Z., Hernandez, F., Bangalore, P., Gray, J., Skjellum, A., Velusamy, V. and Liu, Y., “Grid-ow: a grid-enabled scientific workow system with a petri-net-based interface,” Workow in Grid Systems, 18, pp.1115–1140, 2005.

  17. Hendler, J., “Web 3.0: Chicken farms on the semantic web,” Computer, 41, 1, pp. 106–108, 2008.

  18. Holmes, T., Vasko, M. and Dustdar, S., “Viebop: Extending bpel engines with bpel4people,” in 16th ruromicro international conference on parallel, distributed and network-based processing, pp. 547–555, IEEE Computer Society, 2008.

  19. Object Management Group/Business Process Management Initiative, Specification of Business Process Modeling Notation, 1-1 Specification.pdf.

  20. Laskey, K., Estefan, J. A., McCabe, F. G. and Thornton, D., “Reference Architecture Foundation for Service Oriented Architecture Version 1.0 Committee Draft 02,” OASIS, 2009.

  21. Lathem, J., Gomadam, K. and Sheth, A. P., “Sa-rest and (s)mashups : Adding semantics to restful services,” in ICSC, pp. 469–476, IEEE Computer Society, 2007.

  22. McCoy, D. and Natis, Y., “Service-oriented architecture: Mainstream straight ahead,” Technical Report LE-19-7652, Gartner Research, April 2003.

  23. Microsoft, Web services specifications, WWW, 2010.

  24. Montesi, F., Guidi, C. and Zavattaro, G., “Composing services with jolie,” in Fifth European Conference on Web Services, pp. 13–22, 2007.

  25. Montesi, F., Guidi, C., Lucchi, R. and Zavattaro, G., “Jolie: a java orchestration language interpreter engine,” Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 181, pp. 19–33, 2007.

  26. Montesi, F., Guidi, C., Lucchi, R. and Zavattaro, G., “Jolie: a java orchestration language interpreter engine,” Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci., 181, pp. 19–33, June 2007.

  27. Myers, B. R., Foundations of WF : An Introduction to Windows Workow Foundation, Apress, 2007.

  28. “Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0.,” OASIS.

  29. Overdick, H., “The Resource-Oriented Architecture,” in IEEE SCW, pp. 340–347, 2007.

  30. Dustdar, S., Leitner, P., Rosenberg, F., “Daios: Efficient dynamic web service invocation,” Internet Computing, IEEE, 13, pp. 72–80, 2009.

  31. Pautasso, C., “BPEL for REST,” in BPM (Dumas, M., Reichert, M. and Shan, M.-C. eds.), vol. 5240 of LNCS, pp. 278–93, Springer, 2008.

  32. Ponnekanti, S. R. and Fox, A., “Sword: A developer toolkit for web service composition," in Proc. of the 11th International WWW Conference (WWW2002), Honolulu, HI, USA, 2002.

  33. Prescod, P., “REST and the real world,”, February 2002.

  34. Prusiewicz, A., “Managing web services in soku systems,” in ACIIDS (2) (Nguyen, N. T., Le, M. T. and Swiatek, J. eds.), vol. 5991 of LNCS, pp. 57–64, Springer, 2010.

  35. Richardson, L. and Ruby, S., Restful web services, O’Reilly, Sebastopol, California, first edition, 2007.

  36. Rosenberg, F., Curbera, F., Duftler, M. J. and Khalaf, R., “Composing restful services and collaborative workows: A lightweight approach,” IEEE Internet Computing, 12, pp. 24–31, 2008.

  37. Russell, N. and Aalst, W. V., “Evaluation of the BPEL4People and WS-HumanTask Extensions to WS-BPEL 2.0 using the Workow Resource Pat-terns,” Technical report, BPM Center Report, 2007.

  38. Virdell, M., “Business processes and workow in the web services world,”, 2003.

  39. Wilde, E., “Declarative web 2.0.,” Information Reuse and Integration, 2007, IRI 2007, IEEE International Conference, pp. 612–617, 2007.

  40. Zhao, H. and Doshi, P., “Towards automated restful web service composition,” in ICWS, pp. 189–196, IEEE, 2009.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jerzy Brzeziński.

About this article

Cite this article

Brzeziński, J., Danilecki, A., Flotyński, J. et al. ROsWeL Workflow Language: A Declarative, Resource-oriented Approach. New Gener. Comput. 30, 141–164 (2012).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • SOKU
  • REST
  • Business Process
  • Declarative Workflow Language