The spatial inhomogeneity of turbulence above a fully rough, packed bed in open channel flow
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Single point turbulence statistics measured directly above and in close proximity to the wall in a fully developed, fully rough, turbulent open channel flow are reported. In order to investigate the spatial inhomogeneity of the turbulence, the measurements were obtained over a matrix of measurement points in a plane parallel to the roughness-bed surface. The measurements were obtained with a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (3D-LDV) system. The turbulence statistics associated with the vertical velocity component, including conditioned mean vertical velocities, rms distributions, and mean vertical momentum fluxes are emphasized. For the Reynolds and Froude numbers associated with this investigation, and with the specific roughness geometry employed in this study (a packed bed of uniform-diameter spheres), it is found that the distribution of the local mean vertical velocity, <w>, has non-zero contributions over the roughness pattern and that this contributes to a mean net vertical momentum flux into the roughness bed. However, the net vertical momentum flux due to turbulent fluctuations is positive out of the bed, consistent with smooth-wall behavior. These results are relevant to the study of sediment entrainment and suspension/deposition as well as the exchange and transport of chemical species between the channel core flow and the fluid within the roughness bed.
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