Skip to main content

Unsteady evolution of the two-phase flow in sparkling wine tasting and the subsequent role of glass shape

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the link between the unsteady dynamics of the liquid phase, closely dependent on the glass shape, and the release of CO2 by a diffusion-convection mechanism, which is the superposition of two mechanisms, the molecular diffusion (Fick’s law) and the bubbles induced mass-transfer (convective transfer). Four glasses of different shapes were investigated. For each one, we followed the time evolution of the liquid (i.e. the wine) and gaseous (i.e. CO2) phases of the wine. The monitoring of the gaseous phase was carried out by measuring the time evolution of the diffusion velocity of gas-phase CO2 released from the air/wine interface during a tasting. In complement, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to monitor the dynamic behaviour of the liquid phase. The comparison of the results for both phases revealed that the velocity at which CO2 molecules in the gas phase returns to the atmosphere is closely related to the vorticity and velocity of the liquid medium which are highly dependent on the shape of the glass. These results suggest that in a glass with a significant wine swirling intensity such as glass 1, CO2 will be released early, which will have a definite impact on the way wine is perceived.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Adrian RJ (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 23:261–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Beaumont F, Popa C, Liger-Belair G, Polidori G (2012) Revealing ascending bubble-driven flow patterns in a laser-etched champagne glass by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). JFV 19:279–289

    Google Scholar 

  3. Beaumont F, Liger-Belair G, Polidori G (2015) Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe. Exp Fluids 56:170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Beaumont F, Liger-Belair G, Bailly Y, Polidori G (2016) A synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography technique applied to convective mass transfer in champagne glasses. Exp Fluids 57:85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Beaumont F, Cilindre C, Abdi E, Maman M, Polidori G (2019) The role of glass shapes on the release of dissolved CO2 in effervescent wine. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 7(1):227–235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Boutier A (2012) Vélocimétrie laser pour la mécanique des fluides (Traité MIM, série Géomécanique). Lavoisier

  7. Brogioli D, Vailati A (2000) Diffusive mass transfer by non-equilibrium fluctuations: Fick’s law revisited. Phys Rev E 63:012105. https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.63.012105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Buch A, Rakib M, Stambouli M (2008) Transfert de matière - Cinétique du transfert de matière entre deux phases, Ed. Techniques Ingénieur

  9. Cilindre C, Conreux A, Liger-Belair G (2011) Simultaneous monitoring of gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses via micro-gas chromatography (μGC). J Agric Food Chem 59:7317–7323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Incropera FP, DeWitt DP, Bergman TL, Lavine AS (2006) Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  11. Liger-Belair G (2012) The physics behind the fizz in champagne and sparkling wines. Eur Phys J Spec Top 201:1–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Liger-Belair G, Voisin C, Jeandet P (2005) Modeling non-classical heterogeneous bubble nucleation from cellulose fibers: application to bubbling in carbonated beverages. J Phys Chem B 109:14573–14580

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Liger-Belair G, Beaumont F, Jeandet P, Polidori G (2007) Flow patterns of bubble nucleation sites (called fliers) freely floating in champagne glasses. Langmuir 23:10976–10983

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Liger-Belair G, Beaumont F, Vialatte MA, Jégou S, Jeandet P, Polidori G (2008) Kinetics and stability of the mixing flow patterns found in champagne glasses as determined by laser tomography techniques: likely impact on champagne tasting. Anal Chim Acta 621:30–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Liger-Belair G, Cilindre C, Gougeon RD, Lucio M, Gebefügi I, Jeandet P, Schmitt-Kopplin P (2009) Unraveling different chemical fingerprints between a champagne wine and its aerosols. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:16545–16549

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Liger-Belair G, Cilindre C, Gougeon RD, Lucio M, Gebefügi I, Jeandet P, Schmitt-Kopplin P (2011) L’effervescence révèle les arômes du champagne: identification de molécules d’intérêt organoleptique par spectrométrie de masse à ultra haute résolution. Revue française d’oenologie 246:32–36

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ottino JM (1989) The kinematics of mixing: stretching, chaos, and transport. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. Padet J (2005) Convection thermique et massique, Ed. Techniques Ingénieur

  19. Perret A, Bonhommeau DA, Liger-Belair G, Cours T, Alijah A (2014) CO2 diffusion in champagne wines: a molecular dynamics study. J Phys Chem B 118:1839–1847

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Polidori G, Beaumont F, Jeandet P, Liger-Belair G (2008) Visualization of swirling flows in champagne glasses. J. Vis 11:184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Polidori G, Jeandet P, Liger-Belair G (2009a) Bubbles and flow patterns in champagne. Am Sci 97:294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Polidori G, Beaumont F, Jeandet P, Liger-Belair G (2009b) Ring vortex scenario in engraved champagne glasses. J. Vis 12:275–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Raffel M, Willert C, Kompenhans J (1998) Particle image velocimetry: a practical guide. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  24. Zhang Y, Xu Z (2008) “Fizzics” of bubble growth in beer and champagne. Elements 4:47–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fabien Beaumont.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Beaumont, F., Liger-Belair, G. & Polidori, G. Unsteady evolution of the two-phase flow in sparkling wine tasting and the subsequent role of glass shape. Exp Fluids 60, 111 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-019-2759-5

Download citation