The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the link between the unsteady dynamics of the liquid phase, closely dependent on the glass shape, and the release of CO2 by a diffusion-convection mechanism, which is the superposition of two mechanisms, the molecular diffusion (Fick’s law) and the bubbles induced mass-transfer (convective transfer). Four glasses of different shapes were investigated. For each one, we followed the time evolution of the liquid (i.e. the wine) and gaseous (i.e. CO2) phases of the wine. The monitoring of the gaseous phase was carried out by measuring the time evolution of the diffusion velocity of gas-phase CO2 released from the air/wine interface during a tasting. In complement, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to monitor the dynamic behaviour of the liquid phase. The comparison of the results for both phases revealed that the velocity at which CO2 molecules in the gas phase returns to the atmosphere is closely related to the vorticity and velocity of the liquid medium which are highly dependent on the shape of the glass. These results suggest that in a glass with a significant wine swirling intensity such as glass 1, CO2 will be released early, which will have a definite impact on the way wine is perceived.
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Beaumont, F., Liger-Belair, G. & Polidori, G. Unsteady evolution of the two-phase flow in sparkling wine tasting and the subsequent role of glass shape. Exp Fluids 60, 111 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-019-2759-5