Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 59:139 | Cite as

An experimental investigation of coupled underexpanded supersonic twin-jets

  • Graham BellEmail author
  • Julio Soria
  • Damon Honnery
  • Daniel Edgington-Mitchell
Research Article

Abstract

High-resolution particle image velocimetry measurements of coupled underexpanded twin-jets are presented. Two nozzle pressure ratios are examined, which are selected due to a change in coupled plume mode indicated by a discontinuous jump in screech frequency. Estimates of the turbulent flow statistics, shear-layer thickness, merge point, inter-nozzle mixing, and integral length scales are provided. The higher nozzle pressure ratio case shows a strong standing-wave present in the velocity fluctuation amplitude and integral length scale. The ratios of standing, acoustic, and hydrodynamic wavelength are compared and find a close fit to Panda’s relation for screech. This indicates that screech in the twin-jet system operates with similar length-scale and frequency characteristics to single jets and provides evidence to suggest screech is an integral part of the twin-jet coupling process. Second-order spatial velocity correlation maps reveal the larger modal structure. A symmetric mode is found for the higher pressure ratio and a weakly symmetric mode for the lower. Comparison is made between where the standing-wave is present and where it is not. It is found that the standing-wave, not the shock structure, is the driver of turbulence coherence modulation near the jet. In regions that are affected only by the standing-wave, it is found that it contributes to both the turbulence intensity and coherence modulation.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the computational resources of the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI).

References

  1. Alkislar MB, Krothapalli A, Lourenco LM (2003) Structure of a screeching rectangular jet: A stereoscopic particle image velocimetry study. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 489(489):121–154.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112003005032 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkislar MB, Krothapalli A, Choutapalli I, Lourenco L (2005) Structure of Supersonic Twin Jets. AIAA journal 43(11):2309–2318.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.10431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. André B, Castelain T, Bailly C (2014) Investigation of the mixing layer of underexpanded supersonic jets by particle image velocimetry. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 50:188–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedict LH, Gould RD (1996) Towards better uncertainty estimates for turbulence statistics. Experiments in Fluids 22(2):129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003480050030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berndt DE (1984) Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations in the Internozzle Region of a Twin-Jet Nacelle. In: SAE Technical Paper, Society of Automotive Engineers, p 10,  https://doi.org/10.4271/841540
  6. Bogey C, Gojon R (2017) Feedback loop and upwind-propagating waves in ideally expanded supersonic impinging round jets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 823:562–591.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.334 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogey C, Marsden O, Bailly C (2012) Influence of initial turbulence level on the flow and sound fields of a subsonic jet at a diameter-based Reynolds number of 105. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 701:352–385.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.162 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis MG, Oldfield DES (1962) Tones from a choked axisymmetric jet. I. Cell structure, eddy velocity and source locations and II. The self excited loop and mode of oscillation. Acustica 12(4):257–277zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Edgington-Mitchell D, Oberleithner K, Honnery DR, Soria J (2014) Coherent structure and sound production in the helical mode of a screeching axisymmetric jet. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 748:822–847.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edgington-Mitchell D, Honnery D, Soria J (2015) Staging behaviour in screeching elliptical jets. International Journal of Aeroacoustics 14(7):1005–1024.  https://doi.org/10.1260/1475-472X.14.7-8.1005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleury V, Bailly C, Jondeau E, Michard M, Juvé D (2008) Space-Time Correlations in Two Subsonic Jets Using Dual Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements. AIAA Journal 46(10):2498–2509.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.35561 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao J, Xu X, Li X (2016) Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Twin-Jet Noise with High Order Finite Difference Scheme. 22nd AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference pp 1–14,  https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2016-2938
  13. Gojon R, Bogey C (2017) Numerical study of the flow and the near acoustic fields of an underexpanded round free jet generating two screech tones. International Journal of Aeroacoustics 16(7–8):603–625.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1475472X17727606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goparaju K, Gaitonde DV (2017) Dynamics of Closely Spaced Supersonic Jets. Journal of Propulsion and Power pp 1–13,  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.B36648
  15. Knast T, Bell G, Wong M, Leb CM, Soria J, Honnery DR, Edgington-Mitchell D (2018) Coupling Modes of an Underexpanded Twin Axisymmetric Jet. AIAA Journal pp 1–12,  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J056434
  16. Kuo CW, Cluts J, Samimy M (2017a) Effects of excitation around jet preferred mode Strouhal number in high-speed jets. Experiments in Fluids 58(4):35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-017-2329-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuo CW, Cluts J, Samimy M (2017c) Exploring Physics and Control of Twin Supersonic Circular Jets. AIAA Journal 55(1):68–85.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J054977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin YF, Sheu MJ (1991) Interaction of parallel turbulent plane jets. AIAA Journal 29(9):1372–1373.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.10749 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mercier B, Castelain T, Bailly C (2017) Experimental characterisation of the screech feedback loop in underexpanded round jets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 824:202–229.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mitchell D, Honnery D, Soria J (2011) Particle relaxation and its influence on the particle image velocimetry cross-correlation function. Experiments in Fluids 51(4):933–947.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-011-1116-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morris PJ (1977) Flow characteristics of the large scale wave-like structure of a supersonic round jet. Journal of Sound and Vibration 53(2):223–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-460X(77)90467-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morris PJ (1990) Instability waves in twin supersonic jets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 220(1):293–307.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112090003263 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Moustafa GH (1994) Experimental investigation of high-speed twin jets. AIAA journal 32(11):2320–2322.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.12293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nicolaides D, Honnery DR, Soria J (2004) Autocorrelation Functions and the Determination of Integral Length with Reference to Experimental and Numerical Data. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference 1(December):1–4Google Scholar
  25. Panda J (1999) An experimental investigation of screech noise generation. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 378:71–96.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112098003383 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Panickar P, Srinivasan K, Raman G (2004) Aeroacoustic features of coupled twin jets with spanwise oblique shock-cells. Journal of Sound and Vibration 278(1–2):155–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2003.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Panickar P, Srinivasan K, Raman G (2005) Nonlinear interactions as precursors to mode jumps in resonant acoustics. Physics of Fluids 17(9):1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2008995 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Powell A (1954) The reduction of choked jet noise. Proceedings of the Physical Society Section B 67(4):313–327.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0370-1301/67/4/306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Powell A, Umeda Y, Ishii R (1992) Observations of the oscillation modes of choked circular jets. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 92(5):2823–2836.  https://doi.org/10.1121/1.404398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raffel M, Willert CE, Wereley ST, Kompenhans J (2007) Particle Image Velocimetry, A Practical Guide, vol 6, 2nd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Heidelberg, New York,  https://doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182370e69, arXiv:1011.1669v3
  31. Raman G (1998) Advances in Understanding Supersonic Jet Screech: Review and Perspective. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 34(1–2):45–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-0421(98)00002-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raman G (1999) Coupling of Twin Supersonic Jets of Complex Geometry. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 36(5):123–146.  https://doi.org/10.2514/2.2523 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Raman G, Panickar P, Chelliah K (2012) Aeroacoustics of twin supersonic jets: a review. International Journal of Aeroacoustics 11(7):957–984.  https://doi.org/10.1260/1475-472X.11.7-8.957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sadr R, Klewicki JC (2003) An experimental investigation of the near-field flow development in coaxial jets. Physics of Fluids 15(5):1233–1246.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1566755 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. Seiner JM, Manning JC, Ponton MK (1986) Dynamic pressure loads associated with twin supersonic plume resonance. AIAA Journal 26(8):954–960.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.9996 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaw L (1990) Twin-jet screech suppression. Journal of Aircraft 27(8):708–715.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.25344 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Singh A, Chatterjee A (2007) Numerical prediction of supersonic jet screech frequency. Shock Waves 17(4):263–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-007-0110-1 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. Soria J (1996) An investigation of the near wake of a circular cylinder using a video-based digital cross-correlation particle image velocimetry technique. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 12(2):221–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(95)00086-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Srinivasan K, Panickar P, Raman G, Kim BH, Williams DR (2009) Study of coupled supersonic twin jets of complex geometry using higher-order spectral analysis. Journal of Sound and Vibration 323(3–5):910–931.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2009.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tam CKW (1995) Supersonic Jet Noise. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 27:17–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tan DJ, Soria J, Honnery D, Edgington-Mitchell D (2017) Novel Method for Investigating Broadband Velocity Fluctuations in Axisymmetric Screeching Jets. AIAA Journal 55(7):2321–2334.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J055606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tritton DJ (1977) Physical Fluid Dynamics. Oxford Science Publ, Clarendon Press,  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9992-3,arXiv:1011.1669v3
  43. Weightman JL, Amili O, Honnery D, Edgington-Mitchell DM, Soria J (2016) Supersonic Jet Impingement on a Cylindrical Surface. In: 22nd AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, pp 2016–2800,  https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2016-2800
  44. Weightman JL, Amili O, Honnery D, Soria J, Edgington-Mitchell D (2017) An explanation for the phase lag in supersonic jet impingement. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 815:815R11–815R111,  https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.37
  45. Westley R, Woolley JH (1969) The near field sound pressures of a choked jet during a screech cycle. In: Agard Cp, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Virigina, vol 42, pp 23.1–23.13,  https://doi.org/10.2514/6.1975-479
  46. Willert CE, Stockhausen G, Voges M, Klinner M, Schodl R, Hassa C, Schürmans B, Güthe F (2008) Particle Image Velocimetry: New Developments and Recent Applications, vol 112, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  47. Wlezien R (1989) Nozzle geometry effects on supersonic jet interaction. AIAA Journal 27(10):1361–1367.  https://doi.org/10.2514/3.10272 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yoo J, Mitchell D, Davidson DF, Hanson RK (2010) Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in shock tube flows. Experiments in Fluids 49(4):751–759.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-010-0876-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Turbulence Research in Aerospace and Combustion, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations